The implementation of the Presidential Youth Fitness Program aligns with the Institute of Medicine report Fitness Measures and Health Outcomes in Youth, the result of a study whose primary purpose was to evaluate the relationship between fitness components and health and develop recommendations for health-related fitness tests for a national youth survey IOM, b. The report includes guidance on fitness assessments in the school setting.
It confirms that Fitnessgram, used in the Presidential Youth Fitness Program, is a valid, reliable, and feasible tool for use in schools to measure health-related fitness. Use of the Fitnessgram represents a transition from the current test, which focuses on performance rather than health and is based on normative rather than criterion-referenced data, to a criterion-referenced, health-related fitness assessment instrument. Accompanying the assessment, as part of a comprehensive program, are education and training through professional development, awards, and recognition.
Although online courses differ from traditional in-school physical education courses in the delivery of instruction, the standards and benchmarks for these courses must mirror those adopted by each individual state, especially when the course is taken to meet high school graduation requirements. The physical education policy of one online school, the Florida Virtual School, is presented in Box This document satisfies that requirement.
Florida Virtual School [FLVS] courses are designed to develop overall health and well-being through structured learning experiences, appropriate instruction, and meaningful content. FLVS provides a quality Physical Education program in which students can experience success and develop positive attitudes about physical activity so that they can adopt healthy and physically active lifestyles.
Programs are flexible to accommodate individual student interests and activity levels in a learning environment that is developmentally appropriate, safe, and supportive. Online physical education provides another option for helping students meet the standards for physical education if they lack room in their schedule for face-to-face classes, need to make up credit, or are just looking for an alternative to the traditional physical education class.
On the other hand, online courses may not be a successful mode of instruction for students with poor time management or technology skills. According to Daum and Buschner , online learning is changing the education landscape despite the limited empirical research and conflicting results on its effectiveness in producing student learning. Through a survey involving 45 online high school physical education teachers, the authors found that almost three-fourths of the courses they taught failed to meet the national guideline for secondary schools of minutes of physical education per week.
Most of the courses required physical activity 3 days per week, while six courses required no physical activity. The teachers expressed support, hesitation, and even opposition toward online physical education. Lesson scheduling is commonly at the discretion of school principals in the United States. The amount of time dedicated to each subject is often mandated by federal or state statutes. Local education agencies or school districts have latitude to make local decisions that go beyond these federal or state mandates.
Often the way courses are scheduled to fill the school day is determined by the managerial skills of the administrator making the decisions or is based on a computer program that generates individual teacher schedules. Successful curriculum change requires supportive scheduling see Kramer and Keller, , for an example of curriculum reform in mathematics.
More research is needed on the effects of scheduling of physical education. In one such attempt designed to examine the impact of content and lesson length on calorie expenditure in middle school physical education, Chen and colleagues found that a lesson lasting minutes with sport skills or fitness exercises as the major content would enable middle school students to expend more calories than either shorter minutes or longer minutes lessons.
The evidence from such research can be used to guide allocation of the recommended weekly amount of physical education minutes for elementary schools, minutes for secondary schools to achieve optimal health benefits for youth. Additional discussion of scheduling is provided later in this chapter in the section on solutions for overcoming the barriers to quality physical education. As discussed in Chapter 3 , there is a direct correlation between regular participation in physical activity and health in school-age children, suggesting that physical activity provides important benefits directly to the individual child HHS, Physical education, along with other opportunities for physical activity in the school environment discussed in Chapter 6 , is important for optimal health and development in school-age children.
It may also serve as a preventive measure for adult conditions such as heart disease, high blood pressure, and type 2 diabetes. Little has been learned about the short- and long-term effectiveness of physical education in addressing public health issues Pate et al. Because the learning objectives of physical education have not included improvement in health status as a direct measure, indirect measures and correlates have been used as surrogates.
However, some promising research, such as that conducted by Morgan and colleagues , has demonstrated that students are more physically active on days when they participate in physical education classes. Further, there is no evidence of a compensatory effect such that children having been active during physical education elect not to participate in additional physical activity on that day. Unlike other physical activity in school e. It also is currently the only time and place for all children to engage in vigorous- or moderate-intensity physical activity safely because of the structured and specialist-supervised instructional environment.
It is expected that children will use the skills and knowledge learned in physical education in other physical activity opportunities in school, such as active recess, active transportation, and intramural sports. For these reasons, physical education programming has been identified as the foundation on which multicomponent or coordinated approaches incorporating other physical activity opportunities can be designed and promoted. Coordinated approaches in one form or another have existed since the early s, but it was not until the 21st century that physical education was acknowledged as the foundation for these approaches.
As discussed in Chapter 3 , research on motor skills development has provided evidence linking physical skill proficiency levels to participation in physical activity and fitness Stodden et al. When school-based multicomponent interventions include physical activities experienced in physical education that are enjoyable and developmentally appropriate, such coordinated efforts are plausible and likely to be effective in producing health benefits Corbin, Accordingly, two of the Healthy People Healthy People , objectives for physical activity in youth relate to physical education: Increase the proportion of adolescents who participate in daily school physical education.
The importance of physical education to the physical, cognitive, and social aspects of child development has been acknowledged by many federal, state, and local health and education agencies. Many private entities throughout the country likewise have offered their support and recommendations for strengthening physical education. Solving the Weight of the Nation , points to the need to strengthen physical education to ensure that all children engage in 60 minutes or more of physical activity per school day. Similarly, the National Physical Activity Plan , developed by a group of national organizations at the forefront of public health and physical activity, comprises a comprehensive set of policies, programs, and initiatives aimed at increasing physical activity in all segments of schools.
To accomplish this ultimate goal, the plan calls for improvement in the quantity and quality of physical education for students from prekindergarten through 12th grade through significant policy initiatives at the federal and state levels that guide and fund physical education and other physical activity programs. Specifically, the plan prescribes seven specific tactics presented in Box Further, physical education policy should make quality the priority while also aiming to increase the amount of time physical education is offered in schools.
Recently, private-sector organizations—such as the NFL through its Play60 program—have been joining efforts to ensure that youth meet the guideline of at least 60 minutes of vigorous- or moderate-intensity physical activity per day. A Physical Activity Action Agenda , a framework for improving access to physical activity for all American children in schools. Although the framework does not focus exclusively on physical education, it does imply the important role of physical education in the action agenda see Box The purpose of the initiative is to help elementary and secondary schools launch the Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program CSPAP , which is focused on strengthening physical education and promoting all opportunities for physical activity in school.
The five CSPAP components, considered vital for developing a physically educated and physically active child, are physical education, physical activity during school, physical activity before and after school, staff involvement, and family and community involvement AAHPERD, Schools are allowed to implement all or selected components.
An AAHPERD survey indicated that 16 percent of elementary schools, 13 percent of middle schools, and 6 percent of high schools from a self-responding nationwide sample, not drawn systematically had implemented a CSPAP since the program was launched. Develop and implement state and school district policies requiring school accountability for the quality and quantity of physical education and physical activity programs. Advocate for binding requirements for PreK standards-based physical education that address state standards, curriculum time, class size, and employment of certified, highly qualified physical education teachers in accordance with national standards and guidelines, such as those published by the National Association for Sport and Physical Education NASPE.
Advocate for local, state and national standards that emphasize provision of high levels of physical activity in physical education e.
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In most schools 92 percent , classes were taught by teachers certified to teach physical education. More than 76 percent of elementary schools provided daily recess for children, and 31 percent had instituted a policy prohibiting teachers from withholding children from participating in recess for disciplinary reasons. The percentage of schools that offered intramural sports clubs to at least 25 percent of students declined from 62 percent of middle schools to.
Enact federal legislation, such as the FIT Kids Act, to require school accountability for the quality and quantity of physical education and physical activity programs. Provide local, state, and national funding to ensure that schools have the resources e. Designate the largest portion of funding for schools that are underresourced. Work with states to identify areas of greatest need. Develop and implement state-level policies that require school districts to report on the quality and quantity of physical education and physical activity programs.
Develop and implement a measurement and reporting system to determine the progress of states toward meeting this strategy. Include in this measurement and reporting system data to monitor the benefits and adaptations made or needed for children with disabilities. Interscholastic sports were offered in 89 percent of high schools.
Among them, approximately 70 percent involved at least 25 percent of the male student population participating and 58 percent involved at least 25 percent of the female student population participating. As noted, a high-quality physical education program can help youth meet the guideline of at least 60 minutes of vigorous- or moderate-intensity physical activity per day. This increase in physical activity should be bal-. Design programs that are effective for every child, including those who face the most barriers to participating in physical activity.
Maximum benefit for school-aged children and adolescents comes from group-based activity for at least 60 minutes per day that allows for increased mastery and skill level over time. Successful programs build group and individual goal setting and feedback into programs. Teaching, coaching, and mentorship: Teachers of physical education, coaches, and mentors can make or break the experience for students. They should be prepared through proper training and included in stakeholder conversations. A well-trained physical activity workforce shares a common commitment and principles that promote physical activity among children.
Great leaders create positive experiences and influence all learners. In a recent literature review, Bassett and colleagues found that physical education contributes to children achieving an average of 23 minutes of vigorous- or moderate-intensity physical activity daily. However, the time spent in vigorous- or moderate-intensity physical activity could be increased by 6 minutes if the physical education curriculum were to incorporate a standardized curriculum such as SPARK discussed in detail below Bassett et al.
Thus, it is possible for physical education to contribute to youth meeting at least half 30 minutes of their daily requirement for vigorous- or moderate-intensity physical activity. To help children grow holistically, however, physical education needs to achieve other learning goals when children are active.
To this end, physical education programs must possess the quality characteristics specified by NASPE b, b,c see Box Designing and implementing a physical education program with these characteristics in mind should ensure that the time and curricular materials of the program enable students to achieve the goals of becoming knowledgeable exercisers and skillful movers who value and adopt a physically active, healthy lifestyle.
Findings from research on effective physical education support these characteristics as the benchmarks for quality programs. In an attempt to understand what effective physical education looks like, Castelli and Rink conducted a mixed-methods comparison of 62 physical education programs in which a high percentage of students achieved the state physical education learning standards with programs whose students did not achieve the standards. Comprehensive data derived from student performance, teacher surveys, and onsite observations demonstrated that highly effective physical education programs were housed in cohesive, long-standing departments that experienced more facilitators e.
Further, effective programs made curricular changes prior to the enactment of state-level policy, while ineffective programs waited to make changes until they were told to do so. The teachers in ineffective programs had misconceptions about student performance and, in general, lower expectations of student performance and behavior. Two large-scale intervention studies—SPARK and CATCH—are discussed in this section as examples of how programs can be structured to increase vigorous- or moderate-intensity physical activity in physical education classes.
The aim of SPARK, a research-based curriculum, is to improve the health, fitness, and physical activity levels of youth by creating, implementing, and evaluating programs that promote lifelong wellness. Research supports the use of SPARK as a platform for improving the quality of physical activity instruction in schools.
The SPARK curriculum has demonstrated the ability to improve student activity levels, increase the number of minutes of vigorous- or moderate-intensity physical activity for students, and provide sustainable and positive change in a school district Myers-Schieffer and Thomas, This is gratifying because one of the goals of the program was to engender positive feeling. In another study, a SPARK intervention is credited with exposing students to an increase in motor skills drills, which in turn led to a higher level of manipulative motor skills acquisition McKenzie et al.
As a result of improved activity levels, students who participated in the SPARK curriculum improved their times in the 1-mile run and sit-up tests Sallis et al. Teachers involved in the SPARK intervention offered increased levels of fitness promotion and provided students with an increased amount of general instruction and increased minutes of attention per week McKenzie et al. The CATCH program teaches children in grades K-8 how to be healthy throughout their lifetimes through a coordinated approach that involves engaging the community, families, and educators to work together.
CATCH significantly increases the physical activity levels of students during physical education class and provides a wide range of learning experiences for students of all abilities. CATCH began as a clinical trial from to in four regional sites: The participants were elementary school children in grades 3 through 5 and included children from multiethnic backgrounds.
The changes were maintained for 3 years postintervention Nader et al. Because physical education is part of the curriculum in schools, its quality should be judged only by whether and to what extent children have learned and benefited from it. In a landmark document on learning goals, Moving into the Future: National Standards for Physical Education , NASPE proposes six student learning standards specifying both conceptual and behavioral characteristics that a physically educated person must pos-. These characteristics encompass knowledge, skill, behavior, and confidence critical to the development and maintenance of health and to the enjoyment of a physically active, healthful lifestyle.
If standards are the gauge for quality, teachers make the difference in a particular school in terms of the extent to which students can achieve the standards. Research has made clear that certified physical education specialists can provide more and longer opportunities for students to meet physical activity guidelines compared with classroom teachers trained to teach physical education McKenzie et al.
Moreover, when teachers are taught strategies to encourage vigorous- or moderate-intensity physical activity in physical education class, a significant increase in physical activity can be expected Lonsdale et al. The role of certified physical. The evidence is unequivocal regarding the need for a continued effort to train physical education specialists and the need for schools to continue to employ them as the main teaching force designing and implementing health-enhancing physical education programs to the fullest extent.
Aside from serving as the instructional leader for physical education, physical education specialists can serve as expert resources for classroom teachers in the implementation of classroom physical activity breaks and recess discussed in detail in Chapter 6.
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Their expertise in age-appropriate physical activity helps ensure that students are participating in activities that are fun and engaging. Additionally, as the catalyst for a healthy school environment, the physical education specialist can assist in the design and delivery of intramural programs provided before and after school, as well as serve as a community outreach specialist for onsite activity partnerships. For physical education specialists interested in a more formal role as a physical activity leader at their school, NASPE has developed a director of physical activity certification program.
It is a commonly held notion of society that to maintain the quality of education, schools should hire teachers certified to teach in the subject matter areas in which they are licensed. Unfortunately, in the United States, not all physical education classes are taught by certified physical education specialists. Indeed, 68 percent of elementary schools allow classroom teachers generalists to teach physical education NASPE, Only 31 states 60 percent support physical education teachers going through the national board certification process, and only New York requires each school district to have a licensed physical education specialist serving as a physical education coordinator NASPE, In addition, teaching physical education requires substantial knowledge and skill in pedagogy—the science and art of teaching.
These standards are accompanied by measurement rubrics unacceptable, acceptable, and target, with target being exemplary developed jointly by NASPE and the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education NCATE for evaluating physical education teacher education programs across the country the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. But the data sources did not distinguish between physical education teaching majors and other kinesiology concentrations e.
Statistics on the number of physical education teacher education programs and their quality based on the NASPE standards are needed. The current wave of effort to curb physical inactivity among youth has begun to influence teacher education programs. According to a national survey study Kulinna et al. These data appear to suggest that physical education teacher education programs are beginning to turn from a traditionally sports- and skills-centered model to a more comprehensive, physical activity— and health-centered model. This change is important in that the role of both current and future physical education teachers extends beyond merely teaching their classes to advancing public health goals McKenzie, In many universities, however, teacher education programs in physical education have either been reduced or eliminated because of the decline in physical education requirements, which has resulted in a decrease in the number of physical education teachers being employed.
Concomitantly, physical education teacher education programs are experiencing an unprecedented crisis. A recent report indicates that, in school year , only 23 doctorate-granting kinesiology departments offered doctoral programs. Scientific and theoretical knowledge: Physical education teacher candidates know and apply discipline-specific scientific and theoretical concepts critical to the development of physically educated individuals.
Skill-based and fitness-based competence: Physical education teacher candidates are physically educated individuals with the knowledge and skills necessary to demonstrate competent movement performance and health-enhancing fitness as delineated in the NASPE K standards. Physical education teacher candidates plan and implement developmentally appropriate learning experiences aligned with local, state, and national standards to address the diverse needs of all students.
Instructional delivery and management: Physical education teacher candidates use effective communication and pedagogical skills and strategies to enhance student engagement and learning. A total of doctoral students were receiving training offered by professors including part-time , and 11 percent of those professors were planning to retire. Boyce and Rikard a report that in the past 13 years, doctoral students graduated as physical education teacher educators— During the same period, 61 positions were open, only 39 of which were filled 64 percent , with an applicant pool of 38 candidates with earned degrees and 13 who completed the doctoral course-work but did not complete the dissertation research Boyce and Rikard, b.
Clearly there is a shortage of physical education teacher educators. Impact on student learning: Physical education teacher candidates use assessments and reflection to foster student learning and inform decisions about instruction. Physical education teacher candidates demonstrate dispositions essential to becoming effective professionals. Advanced physical education teacher candidates come to understand disciplinary content knowledge, the application of content knowledge to teaching physical education, and modes of inquiry that form the bases for physical education programs and instruction.
Advanced physical education teacher candidates AC use content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge PCK to design and conduct appropriate learning experiences that facilitate and enhance the growth of learners. Advanced physical education teacher candidates are continuous, collaborative learners who further their own professional development and use their abilities to contribute to the profession. Because of a lack of national tracking data on physical education graduates, the extent to which the teacher educator shortage has impacted and will impact the need to supply quality physical education teachers to the nation is unclear.
Professional development is essential for improving classroom instruction and student achievement Ball and. Cohen, ; Cohen and Hill, Through a variety of delivery methods, professional development activities may include credit or noncredit courses, classroom or online venues, workshops, seminars, teleconferences, and webinars, with the ultimate goal of improving the delivery of instruction to enhance student achievement.
Yoon and colleagues assert that a strong link exists among professional development, teacher learning and practice, and student achievement. Figure , which aligns with the research on effective professional development Kennedy, ; Loucks-Horsley and Matsumoto, ; Cohen and Hill, ; Garet et al. The most impactful statement of government policy on the preparation and professional development of teachers was the reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act Whitehurst, , known as the No Child Left Behind Act.
While Title I of the act places highly qualified teachers in the classroom, Title II addresses the same goal by funding professional development for teachers. The importance of quality professional development is well documented in the act. The act states that high-quality professional development programs should have the characteristics listed in Box Recommendations for high-quality professional development tend to emphasize the importance of.
It is sustained, intensive, and content-focused to have a positive and lasting impact on classroom instruction and teacher performance. It is aligned with and directly related to state academic content standards, student achievement standards, and assessments. It is regularly evaluated for effects on teacher effectiveness and student achievement. Intensive and focused in-service training. Wiley and Yoon and Kennedy suggest that teaching practice and student achievement are likely to improve when professional development is focused on academic content and curriculum that are aligned with standards-based reform.
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Looking at the effect of professional development on changes in behavior among physical education teachers, Martin and colleagues found that, following a variety of professional development experiences and follow-up sessions, teachers showed increases in their efficacy in attaining motor skills objectives, physical activity and fitness knowledge objectives, and personal and social objectives.
Results indicated that after teachers completed professional development the resources they gained enabled them to improve their instruction by teaching more content, maximizing student learning opportunities, teaching diverse learners, teaching to development, and increasing classroom safety. Learning Forward formerly known as the National Staff Development Council provides research-based guidelines to assist districts in aligning local professional development programs with qualitative standards. Its Standards for Professional Learning were revised in and are guided by the relationship between professional learning and student results see Box According to Learning Forward As a recognized means of providing physical education teachers with the tools necessary to enhance student achievement, quality professional development should be provided on a regular basis with follow-up support, along with a method for determining its effectiveness in meeting both curricular and pedagogical standards.
Furthermore, to enhance the fitness achievement of students, school-based professional development should provide instruction on the integration of fitness testing into a curriculum and should include training in protocols, the interpretation and communication of results, and the setting and achievement of fitness goals and recommendations for developing healthy living habits for both students and their parents IOM, a. Professional learning that increases educator effectiveness and results for all students occurs within learning communities committed to continuous improvement, collective responsibility, and goal alignment.
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Professional learning that increases educator effectiveness and results for all students requires skillful leaders who develop capacity, advocate, and create support systems for professional learning. Professional learning that increases educator effectiveness and results for all students requires prioritizing, monitoring, and coordinating resources for educator learning. Professional learning that increases educator effectiveness and results for all students uses a variety of sources and types of student, educator, and system data to plan, assess, and evaluate professional learning.
Professional learning that increases educator effectiveness and results for all students integrates theories, research, and models of human learning to achieve its intended outcomes. Professional learning that increases educator effectiveness and results for all students applies research on change and sustains support for implementation of professional learning for long-term change. Professional learning that increases educator effectiveness and results for all students aligns its outcomes with educator performance and student curriculum standards.
Instructional opportunities for physical activity and physical education are mandated by most states. In comparison with data prior to , more states have developed mandates for physical education at both the elementary and secondary school levels. However, most mandates lack a specified time allocation that ensures meeting the NASPE recommendation of and minutes per week for elementary and secondary schools, respectively McCullick et al. Some obstacles to the implementation of quality physical activity are listed in Box Class periods dedicated to physical education are declining at all school levels.
Existing discrepancies between policy and implementation with respect to specific time allocation contribute to a reduction in actual instructional time for physical education. There is a potential shortage of physical education specialists to influence the design and maintenance of quality physical education programs. Reductions in active learning time and opportunities in physical education contribute to potential student underachievement on national standards.
Disparities may exist in instructional opportunities for children in nontraditional learning settings. With physical education not being considered a core subject, and amid growing concern regarding the increase in childhood obesity and physical inactivity, several national studies and reports have emphasized the importance of implementing state statutes, laws, and regulations both mandating time requirements for physical education and monitoring compliance.
In the United States, school policies on curriculum and school-based activities are determined by local education agencies according to state laws governing educational activities. Decisions about what to teach, who will teach it, and what level of resources will be provided are made by the state, county or district, and school administration. Of importance to this analysis is the distinction made between state statutes and administrative codes, which accords with the definition proffered by Perna and colleagues Using the NASBE database, the committee performed an overall analysis of policies on physical education and physical activity of the 50 states and the District of Columbia.
The analysis revealed that 45 states 88 percent mandate physical education; 22 states 23 percent require it. A majority of states allow for waivers or substitutions for physical education see the discussion below. Fitness assessment is required in 15 states 29 percent , and other curricular assessments are required in 4 states 0.
Forty-three states 84 percent require some degree of physical education for high school graduation, with a range of 0. Although no federal policies requiring physical education presently exist, the above evidence shows that the majority of states require physical education. However, the number of days and time required vary greatly by state and local school district, as does the amount of physical education required for high school graduation. Given the reduced time for physical activity in school through recess, and absent the implementation of stronger policies, schools have not only the opportunity but also the responsibility to nurture in youth the skills, knowledge, and confidence to develop and maintain a healthy lifestyle.
The consensus among states indicated by the mandates for physical education summarized above, together with the discrepancies in specific policies, may suggest the need for general guidelines or a federal-level mandate that can serve to guide a collective effort to address the prevalence of childhood inactivity and obesity. In addition to policies that directly require offering physical education in schools, other policies support physical education opportunities in schools.
In the U. Although school districts are required to include goals for physical activity in their local school wellness policies, they are not required to address physical education specifically. Some policies have contributed to the substantial reduction in the opportunities for school-age children to be physically active, such as by shortening or eliminating physical education classes.
These reductions can be attributed to budget cuts and increased pressure for schools to meet academic standards imposed by the federal government. The No Child Left Behind Act of requires that states develop assessment and accountability measures to verify performance improvements in the subject areas of reading and mathematics P. Specifically, federal funding is now dependent on schools making adequate progress in reading and mathematics.
No Child Left Behind requires all public schools receiving federal funding to administer statewide standardized annual tests for all students. Schools that receive Title I funding through the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of must make adequate yearly progress in test scores e. If required improvements are not made, schools are penalized through decreased funding. If a school produces poor results for 2 consecutive years, improvement plans must be developed for the school.
If a school does not make adequate progress for 5 consecutive years, a full restructuring of the school is mandated. In response to the act, schools have devoted more time in the school day to instruction in reading and mathematics. Unfortunately, 44 percent of school administrators reported that these increases in instructional time for reading and mathematics were achieved at the expense of time devoted to physical education, recess, art, music, and other subjects Center on Education Policy, , see Table The emphasis on high-stakes testing and pressure for academic achievement in the core subjects has had unintended consequences for other subjects throughout the school day.
As discussed earlier, however, no evidence suggests that physical education and physical activity have a negative effect on student achievement. On the contrary, positive academic-related outcomes e. The Center on Education Policy conducted an analysis of survey data from school districts on the amount of time devoted to specific subjects to determine the impact of the No Child Left Behind Act.
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Shifts in instructional time toward English language arts and mathematics and away from other subjects were relatively large in a majority of school districts that made these types of changes. A higher proportion of urban districts 76 percent than rural districts 54 percent reported such increases. Districts that also reduced instructional time in other subjects reported total reductions of 32 percent, on average.
Eight of 10 districts that reported increasing time for English language arts did so by at least 75 minutes per week, and more than half 54 percent did so by minutes or more per week. Among districts that reported adding time for mathematics, 63 percent added at least 75 minutes per week, and 19 percent added minutes or more per week. Most districts that increased time for English language arts or mathematics also reported substantial cuts in time for other subjects or periods, including social studies, science, art and music, physical education, recess,.
Among the districts that reported both increasing time for English language arts or mathematics and reducing time in other subjects, 72 percent indicated that they reduced the time for one or more of these other subjects by a total of at least 75 minutes per week. For example, more than half 53 percent of these districts cut instructional time by at least 75 minutes per week in social studies, and the same percentage 53 percent cut time by at least 75 minutes per week in science Center on Education Policy, Districts that reported an increase in instructional time for elementary school English language arts spent an average of minutes per week on this subject before No Child Left Behind was enacted.
After the act became law, they spent minutes per week. The average increase for English language arts was minutes per week, or a 47 percent increase over the level prior to the act Center on Education Policy, ; see district survey items 18 and 19 in Table ITA. Table shows the specific amounts of time cut from various subjects in districts that reported decreases.
For example, 51 percent of districts with a school in need of improvement reported decreased time in social studies, compared with 31 percent of districts with no school in need of improvement Center on Education Policy, The Shape of the Nation Report includes documentation of the multiple reasons students may be exempt from physical education classes. Thirty-three states permit school districts or schools to allow students to substitute other activities for physical education.
Although it would seem reasonable that some substitution programs such as JROTC or cheerleading might accrue physical activity comparable to that from physical education, these programs do not necessarily offer students opportunities to learn the knowledge and skills needed for lifelong participation in health-enhancing physical activities. No evidence currently exists showing that students receive any portion of the recommended 60 minutes or more of vigorous- or moderate-intensity physical activity through substituted activities sanctioned by their schools.
Barriers other than the policies detailed above hinder efforts to improve and maintain high-quality physical education. This section reviews these barriers, along with some solutions for overcoming them. Table lists institutional and teacher-related as well as student-related barriers identified by various authors. They identified three categories of barriers: Jenkinson and Benson surveyed secondary school physical education teachers in Victoria, Australia, and asked them to rank order the barriers they perceived to providing quality physical education. The results are shown in Table Access to and lack of facilities a , h.
Support from administration a , h. Insufficient number of PE staff a , e. Difficulty of providing safely planned and structured lessons d.
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High level of accountability for other subjects e. Confidence in teaching PE g , h , l. Personal school experiences in PE g , h. Low fitness levels, therefore potentially lower ability b. Jenkinson and Benson, Jenkinson and Benson also presented teachers with a list of barriers to student participation in physical education and physical activity in three categories: The teachers were asked to rank the top five barriers they perceived. Results are presented in Table If a student, for instance, is absent for a semester and is not continuously enrolled they need to know if degree requirements have changed.
While this case concerned a private school, Healy v. Information required on the DOE website includes: Institutions are also required to disclose transfer credit policies and articulation agreements. This includes ability discrimination in recruitment. Individuals designated with a disability by a medical professional, legally recognized with a disability    and deemed otherwise qualified are entitled to equal treatment and reasonable accommodations.
Title IX of the Higher Education Act Amendments  protect all sexes from pre-admission inquiries with regard to pregnancy, parental status, family or marital status. It can be seen that this act also protects against such inquiry regarding inter-sexed, transsexual, transgender or androgynous individuals. Individuals designated with a disability by a medical professional, legally recognized with a disability    and deemed otherwise qualified are entitled to equal treatment and reasonable accommodations in both educational and employment related activities.
Individuals may not be discriminated against on the basis of their color in either undergraduate or graduate school admissions. Protection from discrimination in admissions   entails that students receive accommodations required to prove they are otherwise qualified, protection from unfair testing practices, testing accommodations for speech, manual and hearing disabilities and access to alternative testing offered in accessible facilities.
Alternative testing must also be offered as frequently as are standard tests. Educational tests which are biased in favor of one gender, may not be relied upon as the sole source of information decision making. Students' equality entails that individuals not be treated differently by individuals or systematically by an institution. Thus, testing policies which systematically discriminate, are unlawful according to the constitution. Fordice prohibited the use of ACT scores in Mississippi admissions, for instance, because the gap between ACT scores of white and black student was greater than the GPA gap which was not considered at all.
When a school has engaged in racial discrimination in the past they are required by law to take race conscious affirmative action to correct it. White students are protected from racial discrimination at historic minority institutions. There may be no segregation in the admissions process including subjective interviews      when there are objective standards in place for all applicants.
Students are protected from the use of lower admissions test scores. Students are protected from the use of quotas which set aside seats for certain demographics. Students are protected from deviation from information advertised in registration materials. Institutions must be careful with readmissions after students have failed to complete necessary program requirements. Readmission raises questions as to why individuals were removed from the program in the first place and whether future applicants may be admitted under like conditions.
Discrimination may be alleged regarding both the initial removal and also in the case that other students are not readmitted under like circumstances. If students take a voluntary leave of absence, institutions must have a valid reason to refuse readmission. Students are protected from deviation from information advertised in class syllabi. Students are entitled to receive instruction on advertised course content.
Students may expect teaching in conformity with the course level advertised. Pace University awarded damages on the grounds of negligent misrepresentation and breach of contract. Teachers must give reasonable attention to all stated course subjects. Students may have all advertised content covered in sufficient depth. Rosenblum found that "tight control over the curriculum was necessary to ensure uniformity across class sections". Students may be graded fairly and in accordance with criteria set forth by the course syllabuses and may be protected from the addition of new grading criteria.
Departments may change grades issued by teachers which are not in line with grading policies or are unfair or unreasonable. Students have the right to learn. They must act within departmental requirements which ensure students' right to learn and must be considered effective. New Hampshire  found that teachers have the right to lecture. They do not have academic freedom under the law. Students may expect protection from the misuse of time;  teachers may not waste students' time or use the class as a captive audience for views or lessons not related to the course. Students can expect effective teaching even if it requires departmental involvement in teaching and curriculum development.
If there is departmental involvement in the students' learning then the departments need to acknowledge that students are different when they belong to a minority group. Ogbu  argued that for an effective teaching to take place, departments need to understand students at a group level as well as at an individual level because even students within the same minority groups are different. Given that students have the right to effective teaching, department involvement needs to understand cultural diversity and cultural differences before a curriculum development is considered.
Teachers have the right to regulated expression   but may not use their first amendment privileges punitively or discriminatorily   or in a way which prevents students from learning by ridiculing, proselytizing, harassment or use of unfair grading practices. The Americans With Disabilities Act  and Section of the Rehabilitation Act  prohibit disability based discrimination in the classroom. Act This includes ability discrimination in learning    and deemed otherwise qualified are entitled to equal treatment and reasonable accommodations in both educational and employment related activities.
Disabled students are entitled to equal access to classrooms facilities required to achieve a degree. Students Equality entails that individuals not be treated differently by individuals or systematically by an institution. Institutions have an obligation to provide equal opportunities in athletics, bands and clubs. This includes equal accommodation of interests and abilities for both sexes, provision of equipment and facility scheduling for such activities as games and practices, travel allowance and dorm room facilities.
It includes also equal quality facilities including locker rooms, medical services, tutoring services, coaching and publicity. They must provide athletic opportunities proportionate to enrollment, prove that they are continually expanding opportunities for the underrepresented sex or accommodate the interests and abilities of the underrepresented sex.
The Higher Education Opportunity Act  also requires the disclosure of athletics information including male and female undergraduate enrollment, number of teams and team statistics including the number of players, team operating expenses, recruitment, coach salaries, aid to teams and athletes and team revenue HEOA, This information is required to ensure equality standards are met. Students are entitled to housing of equal quality and cost and to equal housing policies. Until the nineteen nineties gender segregation was permissible so long as institutional rationale for doing so was narrowly defined and justifiable.
Commonwealth of Virginia found that a woman mistakenly admitted to a men's military college was entitled to remain enrolled. Students are entitled to equal treatment in housing regardless of age unless there is a narrowly defined goal which requires unequal treatment and policy is neutrally applied. University of South Dakota , for instance, found that the institution may require all single freshmen and sophomores to live on campus. Watkins established that students are not required to waive search and seizure rights as a condition of dormitory residence.
Institutions may enter rooms in times of emergency, if they have proof of illegal activity or a threat to the educational environment. Otherwise institutions must ask for permission to enter. Evidence found in student dorm rooms by institutional employees cannot be used in a court of law and institutions cannot allow police to conduct a search and seizure with out warrant. Connecticut found that the third, fourth, and fifteen amendments together constitute an inalienable right to privacy.
Students are extended the same privacy rights extended to the community at large. Students have the right to access their records, dispute record keeping and limited control over the release of documents to third parties. This legislation does allow schools, however, to release information without student approval for the purpose of institutional audit, evaluation, or study, student aid consideration, institutional accreditation, compliance with legal subpoenas or juvenile justice system officers  or in order to comply with laws requiring identification of sex offenders on campus. Under FERPA, schools may publish directory information, including the students name, address, phone number, date of birth, place of birth, awards, attendance dates or student ID number, unless students ask the school not to disclose it.
The institution must inform students they are entitled to these rights. The Higher Education Opportunity Act  requires that institutions disclose institutional statistics on the Department of Education DOE website to allow students to make more informed educational decisions.
The HOEA  also requires institutions of higher education provide financial aid information disclosures, which essentially advertise the financial aid program, pre eligibility disclosures pertaining to the individual student, information differentiating federally insured or subsidized and private loans, preferred lender agreements, institutional rational for the establishment of preferred lender agreements and notice that schools are required to process any loan chosen by students.
According to the HOEA, financial aid information disclosures must include the average financial aid awarded per person, cost of tuition, fees, room, board, books, supplies and transport. According to the HOEA, financial aid information disclosures must include the amount of aid not requiring repayment, eligible loans, loan terms, net required repayment. Pre-eligibility disclosures must include notice of repayment, lender details, the principle amount, fees, interest rate, interest details, limits of borrowing, cumulative balance, estimated payment, frequency, repayment start date, minimum and maximum payments and details regarding deferment, forgiveness, consolidation and penalties.
Institutions are also required to utilize standard financial terminology and standard dissemination of financial aid information, forms, procedures, data security and searchable financial aid databases to ensure that students can easily understand their contractual rights and obligations. Forms must be clear, succinct, easily readable and disability accessible. The HOEA requires third party student loan lenders to disclose information concerning alternative federal loans, fixed and variable rates, limit adjustments, co-borrower requirements, maximum loans, rate, principle amount, interest accrual, total estimated repayment requirement, maximum monthly payment and deferral options.
The HOEA requires institutions of higher education to engage in financial aid eligibility awareness campaigning to make students aware of student aid and the realities of accepting it. State found institutions may not use student fees to support organizations outside the university. The Higher Education Opportunity Act requires the disclosure of athletics information including male and female undergraduate enrollment, number of teams and team statistics including the number of players, team operating expenses, recruitment, coach salaries, aid to teams and athletes and team revenue HEOA, This ensures that institutions are abiding by Title IX of the Higher Education Act Amendments which limits sexual discrimination and requires institutions to offer equal sport, club and opportunities.
Rector and Visitors of the University of Virginia found student fees must be allocated in a viewpoint neutral way. They cannot be based on religious, political or personal views Henderickson; Good v. Associated Students University of Washington and they cannot be levied as a punishment. The Americans With Disabilities Act  and Section of the Rehabilitation Act protect students against discrimination based on ability.
Individuals shall be designated with a disability by a medical professional, legally recognized with a disability. Board of Trustees of Butler County Community College found that students are not entitled to due process rights when appealing rejected admissions applications. Due process is required when actions have the potential to resulting a property or monetary loss or loss of income or future income etc.
This includes degree revocation   or dismissal. Students have a property interest in remaining at the institution and have protection form undue removal. Students also have a liberty right to protect themselves from defamation of character or a threat to their reputation. Federal district courts have, therefore, found that due process is required in cases involving charges of plagiarism, cheating   and falsification of research data.
In disciplinary measures students are entitled to the provision of a definite charge. Assessments of vocational courses were more varied, typically encompassing practical performance and, particularly for higher level courses, essay-style answers. The s saw significant developments here, too, noticeably with BTEC assignment work and with increasing use of group work and simulated work experience. Its aims corresponded to a large degree with the six that I have offered and its detail indicated how such an apparently complex and multi-purpose programme of study could be organised and achieved in practice.
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