Here, Jean ne has simply gone missing — she is shown in none of the illustrations — and there is no hint of a Telemachiad or its gendered turnabout. Verne's text includes no mention of this reptile. The edition replaces Faivre's images with twelve of Roux's original engravings, crudely reproduced on the book's very poor stock.
Faivre's frontispiece shows a banal river scene Figure Jean is depicted as frankly girlish from the start. He is not shown falling into the river during the chubasco , and seems little changed after being rescued Figure Jeanne is never shown in "the garments of her sex. None of the images of Jean in masculine dress is included. Roux's frontispiece Figure 2 is used for the book's jacket but the companion illustration of Jeanne "charmante en fille" Figure 8 is omitted, thus requiring the reader to resolve the puzzle of her first appearance as a woman without its double at the adventure's end.
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In both editions, the illustrations have been re fitted to an at best accessory relation to the text — which is to say, they are "illustrations" in a trivial, uninteresting sense of that term, leaving little room for more complex engagements. A abridgement of the novel in Hebrew multiplies infelicities of the earlier BV edition. It reprises four of Faivre's illustrations uncredited, they include two full-page images shown in Figure These are augmented with two modern-day photographs of forests of the Orinoco region — supplied, the colophon notes, by the Shell Oil Corporation!
The final image of the book — roughly in the position where Jeanne is shown in the edition in a full dress Figure 8 — shows three men establishing a riverbank camp at the edge of a forest. The drawing is labeled, in English, "Lewis River. It is not a South American scene. Most of his images are of natural landscapes or distant views of an episode in which the adventurers appear as tiny, near-stick figures.
Jeanne is never shown dressed as a young woman, even at the novel's end. The few close-up images of people are all of bearded men — Martial, Helloch, Colonel de Kermor, etc. But the boy is not only missing from the illustrations; he seems to be missing in a calculated way. He is notably absent from scenes in which other illustrators — including Roux — have placed him at the center, and where the text indicates explicitly that he should be present. The illustration shown in Figure 15 middle right , for example, corresponds to a passage early in the novel I. Roux's illustration Figure 15 , far right shows the two of them in conversation.
Martial is shown in profile and Jean's back is to the reader.
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In Stoye's version of this scene, however, Jean is not present and Martial looks directly quizzically? He can't be looking thus at Jean — the boy is not the narrating consciousness of this passage; in practical terms, the image can't be focalized through him. Martial must be looking, then, at the reader.
This is, in fact, a recurring trait of Stoye's illustrations, several of which include a person or an animal staring out from the page. The most striking examples of these are the two figures of the frontispiece and the half-submerged crocodiles of the book's jacket [ Figure 15 ]. Stoye has found thus an interesting solution to the illustrator's thorniest problem: The boy is, after all, a principal character of the adventure: The eyes looking out from the illustrations displace the locus of these questions and the riddle of the boy's identity away from the surface of the page and into the field of the reader's gaze.
The effect is not as interesting as it might have been were the translation more correct — Martial is reported to cry out "Jeanne, mein Kind! The comic format often requires drastic alterations of storyline; substantial liberties may be taken in this regard to heighten dramatic action or delete material presumed to be of no interest to the target audience, usually young readers.
Crude halftoning techniques, inconsistent color registration, and poor paper quality limit the complexity and subtlety of images and push the artist's contributions toward simpler forms, brighter colors, and sharper contrasts. Though fragments of description and dialogue may be preserved, it is more common that the author's textual programs are subjected almost entirely to systems of the graphic image and the unforgiving spatial constraints of the panel.
Conversely, it demonstrates that the comic artist, in order to sustain narrative tensions, is obliged to rely on programs that an illustrator such as Roux might trust to his author. Her exchanges with Marcial Martial in these early panels suggest that there is a secret between them, but there is no sign that her clothing hides it.
Juana, in fact, never changes out of these clothes, though at the comic's conclusion she can't be mistaken for a young man Figure 16 , right. The frankness of her femininity in the closing panels provides the justification for a crucial punctuation marked in the dialogue: With his final exclamation, Helloch insists on the textual supplement by which young Juan has become Juana — the visual proof of which the reader may easily discern in the girl's profile, clearest in this panel than in any proceeding it.
In the comic, the structure corresponding to Paterne's tautology — a complex linguistic object that had to be sustained as much textually as graphically in the Hetzel edition — has been split and redistributed.
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The last term — "charmante en fille" — corresponds to the dialogue of the final frame. In the comic, Juan's fall into the river during the chubasco is, as it was in the original, the event that sets apart the boy of Book I from the young woman of Book II Figure We may observe, however, that instead of crying out the name that is not Juan, Marcial here remembers to keep the secret.
Juan is shown with his head above water — a practical consideration, perhaps: But this alignment of his speech and body has another effect: If Marcial were to call out a young woman's name at this moment, this would effect a break in the mimetic logic of the comic frame, which depends on the conceit that events are shown to us in the sequence and the manner in which they occur. Verne, in contrast, is more free to multiply structures of ambiguity and deferral in this moment, because he has already put in place textual feints and safeguards that have no correlate in the comic medium.
Because visual registers of the fiction are given a greater priority here, it makes little sense that Marcial should tell us Juan's real name, and thus gender. It is more fitting that we be shown these data. In the following panels, we are able to see traits that in the novel we can only assume Helloch must have felt , but neither Verne nor Roux could represent. Juana's femininity is visually signified: Optical conditions for this revelation are extremely unlikely — Juan has fallen into a storm-tossed river; Helloch could never see so far or so clearly beneath the surface — but the medial system of the print comic requires a sequence of this kind if the reader is to understand Helloch's confusion and barely-disguised relief.
In early panels of the comic, external signs of Juana's anatomy are subdued, if not missing altogether Figure 16 , left; Figure By the end, those signs are unambiguous and as marked as a child-oriented comic book will allow Figure 16 , right. The example of his her visual transformation suggests an important difference between graphic programs of the comic artist and the book illustrator. Generally speaking, the illustrator is compelled to adapt her images to narrative sequences and, more rarely, to textual programs of the work she illustrates.
This doesn't mean, however, that she may not extend them in new directions, or even subvert them in certain respects. In contrast, the artist of a comic adaptation is freed from many of the obligations imposed by textual systems of the original. The reductive imperative of adaptation and the unforgiving constraints of the comic book format tend to invert the relation of text and image characteristic of the book, pushing graphic programs to the foreground, and, often, stripping textual programs of most or all of their nuances.
His images must be the foundation of the intrigue; he cannot rely on subtle verbal systems to balance their evidence because there is not enough room in the panel to build much of textual basis for misleading the reader. Once the masquerade is revealed, it can't be credibly resumed; the mimetic pull of the image is too strong and the counter-pull of the speech balloon too weak. The most effective solution to this double bind is formal: Again, the reading surface can support effects beyond narrative sequence.
As the reader's eye makes a tour of the page, Juana's body turns to show us what we've been looking for all along. Verne can rely on the machinery of realist language, grammar and punctuation to keep from giving it all away too quickly. Roux can pretend for awhile to show us what Verne pretends to describe, and then show us what we know is there as Verne continues the pretense when it is no longer credible. Artists working in formats in which strict fidelity to textual programs is impossible can, as we have seen, ignore engagements of image and text save those that serve the most basic patterns of the narrative.
Even then, the images may figure only some strands of the narrative and neglect others; some textual programs become thus literally unrecognizable. There, the lateral window is turned a little, but retains its indirection. Emb , Gondola della Riva and Jauzac survey dates of first publication and distinctive traits of their major categories. Butcher , Dumas , and Martin describe the often antagonistic relations between Verne and his editors. I ignore here the importance of Michel Verne's role in the redaction of his father's posthumous works published by Hetzel.
These are now known to have been largely or entirely rewritten by Michel. Chromolithography was used for color maps of the series beginning in the late s. Chromotypographs were introduced to the series in In some re-editions of older works after that date, black-and-white illustrations are replaced by chromotypographs; in a few cases, these appear to be newly-commissioned or previously unpublished images by the original artists. The "chromos" are always hors-texte , unnumbered leaves printed only on the recto and inserted between signatures before binding.
Victorian-era translations of Verne, however grotesquely abbreviated and unrepresentative of his style, were often published in ornamented bindings that included illustrations from the first French editions. For example, the cover of the LdP edition of Vingt mille lieues sous les mers shows Aronnax, Conseil, and Ned Land in silhouette looking out a window of the Nautilus - the image is cropped from Alphonse de Neuville's original engraving - at a giant shark an enlarged color photograph of a real shark Figure 3.
Chromotypographs in both the classic and modern LdP editions are reprinted in black and white. To my knowledge, no modern reprints of the Hetzel editions include the chromotypographs as they were presented in the originals, in color and hors-texte. Sebeok, for example, recalls that his father's library in Budapest was well-stocked with the Hetzel editions, and that their images had a powerful effect on him as a child, though he was not able to read French until years later Sebeok , A cruel economic irony is marked in this elevation of the image in the published works during Verne's lifetime and, above all, at the Voyages' end: For the first two decades of their publication, illustrated editions of the Voyages far outsold unillustrated editions, and the profitability of the former was substantially greater on a per-copy basis.
Sales of illustrated and unillustrated editions more nearly equalized in later years, but the illustrated editions were always the primary source of the series' profit. Verne's financial successes were significant, but slender in comparison to those of his publishers, and always more insecure.
Paradoxically, the opacity of the page reminds us that this opening is at most a medially-bound conceit of the illustrated book. Gandelman's analysis of this threshold function in the images of doors and windows, , Streamlining the texts to safeguard the reader's flagging attention suppresses effects of saturation, distraction — even boredom — that the lists are meant to instill. One might as well strip Borges's fictions of their impertinent digressions. As Miller observes , , Verne's contemporary readers would have picked up immediately on this comparison of the polar landscape to then state-of-the-art techniques in theatrical special effects.
Chaffanjon's book was Verne's primary source for information about the Orinoco region, and the novel's principal character, Jean de Kermor, reads and repeatedly cites the book during the first two-thirds of the journey see, for example, Figure 4. If, as I propose below, Verne and Roux must have had discussions about the function of illustrations in the novel, Chaffanjon's book probably served as an important intertext between author and artist. On a more speculative note: In this essay, I follow conventions of Vernian criticism in assuming that Roux was a man.
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Only a handful of the most popular works in the series remain in print. Thus, as I write this in July , no French-language edition of SO in print includes in-text illustrations, whether by Roux or another artist. Perhaps the novel's reputation as a minor work by Verne has contributed to its being treated with less diligence? Other of the less-celebrated novels have also been republished in French without illustrations; the general rule of respect for the integrity of the illustrated works I described above is not without regrettable exceptions.
Yet, even in these cases the images tend to return — one is made aware that they constitute a tacit framework for Verne's institutionalization in French popular culture. The illustration is credited to three artists, none of whom is Roux.
Its vast basin extends over 1,, square kilometers and comprises over tributaries. In addition to important 18th and 19th century explorations of the river basin mentioned by Verne SO I. In Chapter 15 of Defoe's Robinson Crusoe , Crusoe learns from Friday that their island is located near the mouth of the river. SO , exemplary voyage to an interior terrain, thus begins beyond Robinson's island and proceeds in the direction of the prototypical mythic kingdom of the Americas and beyond, to the feminine center of terrestrial Creation.
Apart from a few cases in which the Hetzels served as mediators between them, almost nothing is known of Verne's contacts with his illustrators. The example of SO suggests that at least for some of the novels there must have been discussions of these matters; it seems unlikely that Roux would have undertaken so scrupulous a graphic program entirely on his own initiative. This is an area of Verne studies in which important basic research remains to be done.
Literally, what Paterne says is something like, "As charming as a girl while a boy… charming while a girl" —it's as though the "e" dropped from Jeanne's name when she became "Jean" has returned at the end of the adjective applied to her appearance as a boy. Verne ends the novel with a gesture of farewell to the pattern: The play of gender in SO seems to me less an indication of Verne's protofeminism than of his enthusiasm for oppositions, the artifice of their crossings in fiction, and the conventions of romantic comedy.
In , Bougainville's expedition was visiting Tahiti. They recognized what no one appears to have noticed before: She is believed to have been the first western woman ever to see and sail across the Pacific, and the first woman to circumnavigate the globe. We are presently collaborating on an article on this tangle of influences, which appears never to have been noted before.
Though I think it unlikely that further examples will demonstrate textual-graphic programs substantially different from from those I describe here, I welcome any information regarding editions of the novel in any language. This project remains a work in progress. Whether the map of the Hetzel edition is included is not clear. Garmt de Vries has observed that the title, however, signals the ambiguity of Jean's gender from the outset, referring to him as a Pleegkind and not a Pleegzoon "foster-son". I have not been able to review copies of these books. However, the edition of SO in this series complicates problems of textual-graphic provenance by one curious addition to the work.
Each chapter heading includes a vignette showing an explorer standing on a river's edge by his canoe. This image, uncredited, is not by Roux. Review This Product No reviews yet - be the first to create one! Subscribe to our newsletter Some error text Name. Email address subscribed successfully.
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A activation email has been sent to you. Please click the link in that email to activate your subscription. Buy Now Oeuvres de Descartes The intense religious debates in France during the second half of the nineteenth century are familiar to any who have studied the history. Verne was the one of the first novelists in France to attempt to bridge a deep cultural chasm that divided French society as a whole throughout the nineteenth century. On the one side were the progressive and energetic Positivists who, taking full advantage of the tools of the Industrial Revolution and a Guizot-type laissez-faire brand of governmental capitalism, were rapidly industrializing the French countryside in the name of Progress and Science.
This age-old struggle—as exemplified in the twentieth century, for example, by C. Although dozens of French literary works and paintings from the s might be cited as examples of this prevailing public attitude, it is perhaps fitting that the French novelist and caricaturist Albert Robida be singled out. Thus, it appears to have been a convergence of many different factors which dictated that Jules Verne, despite the enormous popular success of his Voyages extraordinaires , was not recognized as an important literary figure in France during his lifetime.
Of course, no simple answers can be given to such a complex question. In the preceding pages, I have discussed several different hypotheses to account for why I believe Jules Verne did not or could not become part of the French literary canon during his lifetime. But two facts are inescapable: As Verne explained to one of his American interviewers in Hetzel fils sold his rights to the novels to the large publishing house Hachette in Sales immediately picked up, the strategy was seen as an unqualified business success, and the two series continue today.