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The ADI, a computerized database of such letters and memoranda, allows users to search by date, office of issuance, subpart, citation, control number, or string word searches. With the new guidance, sources of hazardous air pollutants previously classified as "major sources" may be reclassified as "area" sources at any time, provided the facility limits its potential to emit below major source thresholds.

It was written by Bill Frank from the U. This includes reciprocating internal combustion engines RICE , stationary compression ignition engine internal combustion engines, and stationary spark ignition internal combustion engines. Interpreting the Scope of Certain Monitoring Requirements for State and Federal Operating Permits Programs The final interpretation is that the plain language and structure of certain sections of the operating permits regulations 40 CFR 70 and 71 do not provide an independent basis for requiring or authorizing review and enhancement of existing monitoring in title V permits.

EPA believes that other rules establish a basis for such review and enhancement. The final rule interpretation is effective on 16 January Title V Operating Permit Policy and Guidance Document Index EPA has issued over policy and guidance documents that help to interpret the Part 70 and 71 permit requirements and are available to view in a sortable index.

Environmental Compliance Made Easy

Alternative Water Sources This map provides information about rainwater harvesting regulations throughout the United States. FEMP designed the map to help agencies decide where to implement rainwater harvesting projects. The interactive map lets users click on a state to learn about the state's rainwater harvesting regulations and technical resources. Strategic Plan and Guidance This site details the steps to be taken towards meeting the EPA water program's strategic plans. The lists do not include states, territories or tribes covered only by federal standards applicable to multiple states, such as the Bacteria Rule for Coastal and Great Lakes Waters, and the National Toxics Rule.

Each fact sheet describes the types of facilities included in the sector, typical pollutants associated with the sector, and types of stormwater control measures used to minimize the discharge of the pollutants. Environmental Protection Agency's EPA's Office of Water prepared this guidance document to assist municipalities that own or operate publicly owned treatment works POTWs in developing and implementing local pretreatment programs.

It discusses issues such as how to determine pollutants of concern, the data needed to develop local limits, and implementing local limits. MS4 Permit Compendium While written for MS4 permit writers and aficionados, each compendium has examples of permits with some provisions that include green infrastructure. The first two compendia "Six Minimum Control Measure Provisions" and "Post-Construction Standards" feature examples from existing MS4 permits of clear, specific and measurable requirements.

For Part 3, "Water Quality-Based Requirements" EPA reviewed existing state and EPA permits and identified different ways of implementing TMDLs through quantitative requirements or pollutant-specific management measures such as green infrastructure, or a combination of both. This guidance will assist CSO permittees in developing post construction compliance monitoring plans that collect sufficient data for evaluating the effectiveness of CSO controls and assessing compliance with the Clean Water Act requirements. This provision offers the opportunity to increase administrative efficiencies in the stormwater program by formally recognizing local construction management programs that meet or exceed the provisions in EPA's construction general permit.

SPCC Guidance for Regional Inspectors Issued August , the guidance document is intended to assist regional inspectors in reviewing a facility's implementation of the Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure SPCC rule at 40 CFR part and understanding the rule's applicability, and to help clarify the role of the inspector in the review and evaluation of the performance-based SPCC requirements. The guidance document is also available to owners and operators of facilities that may be subject to the requirements of the SPCC rule and the general public on how EPA intends the SPCC rule to be implemented.

The document is designed to provide a consistent national policy on several SPCC-related issues. Any federally proposed or promulgated replacement water quality standards are also identified. Please note the water quality standards may contain additional provisions outside the scope of the Clean Water Act, its implementing federal regulations, or EPA's authority. In some cases, these additional provisions have been included as supplementary information. Guidance for CERCLA Cleanups at Federal Facilities This website provides information about contaminated federal facility sites in specific communities, access to technical fact sheets and tools and resources to help government agencies and their contractors fulfill cleanup obligations.

It enhances environmental compliance assistance by providing links to documents, tools, information and other related and linked Web sites for compliance with environmental requirements related to EPCRA. Revised Agricultural Worker Protection Standard This site provides information on the revised standard and how best to comply. RCRA Online This is a database is designed to enable users to locate documents, including publications and other outreach materials, that cover a wide range of RCRA issues and topics.

State authorization is a rulemaking process through which the EPA delegates the primary responsibility of implementing the RCRA hazardous waste program to individual states in lieu of the EPA. Topics include, but are not limited to: CCPs are not solid waste if they are appropriately stored or managed for use, legitimately reclaimed, or appropriately stored or managed for legitimate reclamation; CCPs are solid waste if they are abandoned by being accumulated, or by being stored, or treated before, or as a means of, being disposed.

The checklist is designed to assist in applying this regulatory structure to specific situations and evaluating whether a particular CCP, managed in a particular way, is a solid waste. The objective of this document is to consolidate and streamline the information on listing regulations to help Environmental Protection Agency EPA staff, state staff, industrial facilities, and the public understand hazardous waste listing regulations.

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The Regulatory Bulletin discusses the LDR treatment standard established for these mixed waste batteries, the DOE petition that requested the treatability variance, the rationale for granting the variance, and implementation at the State level. Solvents in the Workplace: How to Determine if They Are Hazardous Waste Thousands of American workers use solvents every day in industrial, commercial, and other non-residential settings. Many of these solvents become hazardous wastes when they can no longer be used for their intended purpose and are discarded.

A hazardous waste must be managed safely from its point of generation through recycling or disposal. When one of your solvents can no longer be used, it is your responsibility to determine whether it is a hazardous waste. The purpose of this guide is to make people who use and discard solvents aware of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act RCRA hazardous waste regulations and assist them in making correct hazardous waste determinations for solvents.

State Authorization Tracking System StATS This is an information management system designed to document the progress of each state and territory in establishing and maintaining RCRA-authorized hazardous waste management programs. Strategy for Addressing the Retail Sector Under RCRA The Retail Strategy lays out a cohesive and effective plan to address the unique challenges the retail sector has with complying with the hazardous waste regulations while reducing burden and protecting human health and the environment.

Must for USTs Updated to reflect the revisions to the UST regulations, this page booklet summarizes federal UST requirements for installation, reporting, spill and overfill prevention, corrosion protection, release detection, walkthrough inspections, compatibility, operator training, repairs, financial responsibility, release response, and closure. Drinking Water Contaminants — Standards and Regulations This EPA website provides a collection of updated guidance, tools, and overviews of the standards for drinking water contaminants.

Drinking Water Rule Quick Reference Guides These documents provide a simple and straightforward description of the rule and requirements. The documents include critical deadlines for drinking water systems and states and monitoring requirements. The portal enables the user to work through a decision tree and educate themselves about treatment options before committing to any given treatment.

Revised Total Coliform Rule: A Quick Reference Guide Overview of the new requirements for public water systems related to total coliforms management. The new requirements go into effect 1 April Stage 1 and Stage 2 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rules This website provides background information, guidance, fact sheets, and tools to facilitate understanding the requirements of the Stage 1 and Stage 2 rules as well as implementing them.

Compliance monitoring activities for the RRP Rule include work site inspections, records reviews of renovation firms, and auditing training provider courses that certify renovators. While directed at schools, it applies to any other building owner or operator as well. Guidance for EPA Programs Enforcement and Compliance at Federal Facilities Formerly known as the "Yellow Book" this website compendium of information provides field-level personnel a primer for complying with environmental requirements and understanding the enforcement and compliance processes used by EPA at federal facilities.

Included on the site is a definition of what is included in the terminology "federal facilities," summaries of the enforcement process for federal facilities, and information on available assistance for achieving compliance. Federal Facilities Enforcement Policies and Guidance Key policy and guidance documents for EPA's compliance and enforcement program at federal facilities. Unified Agenda of Regulatory and Deregulatory Actions This website provides access to information on the status of regulatory actions by Agency. Users can select the EPA and review the titles of rules which are in the pre-rule, proposed rule, or final rule stage.

Links are provided for the text of the rule and information provided on expected publication dates. State by State Information Tools EnvCAP has prepared state resource locators for a wide range of topics to help you find important environmental compliance information specifically for your state. State Environmental Agencies This provides a link to the state environmental regulatory agencies. The site includes calculators to estimate emissions from boilers fired by: Each information resource has a record in READ.

The record also includes basic information about the resource such as: Title, Acronym, Description, Contact information, and Organization that owns or operates it. Life cycle information, user types, and access information are other data that can be found in a READ record. Drinking Water Treatability Database The TDB can help drinking water utilities, water treatment process design engineers, researcher organizations, federal and state regulators, professional organizations, environmental groups, and academicians.

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It can be used to identify effective drinking water treatment processes, to plan for future treatment plant upgrades, to provide information to first responders to spills or emergencies, to recognize research needs, to complement literature reviews and literature searches, and to assist regulators in Best Available Technology and Contaminant Candidate List CCL decisions. Economic Guidance for Water Quality Standards The purpose of this web-based tool is to help a variety of stakeholders evaluate the economic and social impacts of pollution controls needed to meet water quality standards set for specific uses for a waterbody, such as swimming or fishing.

This tool could be used by states, territories, tribes, local governments, industry, municipalities and stormwater management districts. The tool will help stakeholders identify and organize the necessary information, and perform calculations to evaluate the costs of pollution control requirements necessary to meet specific water quality standards.

The tool prompts users to submit treatment technology information, alternative pollution reduction techniques and their costs and efficiencies, and financing information, as well as explain where that information can be found. The changes will result in faster and more efficient resolution of self-disclosures, while saving considerable time and resources for regulated entities and EPA. ECHO allows users to find permit, inspection, violation, enforcement action, and penalty information covering the past two years.

The data in ECHO are updated monthly. Any member of the public can report an alleged violation. The site guides the user through the process and asks questions in a way that allows the person reporting a potential violation to clarify exactly what he or she is reporting. Once a tip is filed online, it is reviewed by the criminal enforcement program at EPA headquarters, within 48 hours if possible.

Facility Regulatory Tour FedCenter. It also provides information on green products, P2 opportunities and best practices related to a particular facility activity. Geospatial Platform This website provides ready access to federally maintained geospatial data, services and applications.

The website makes it possible for users to create customized maps using federal geospatial data and common geographic maps. They also can integrate their own data into the maps, and share the maps through Web browsers and mobile applications. The platform was developed by the Federal Geographic Data, an interagency committee chaired by the Secretary of the Interior. Examples of maps in the system include: See if your local waterway was checked for pollution, what was found, and what is being done.

Table 1 lists various tools and information for the layperson. For most, all one needs is a location, waterbody name or zip code to begin. Table 2 provides more advanced tools and databases for water resource managers who may be assessing waters, developing TMDLs or planning restoration actions. My Environment The MyEnvironment search application is designed to provide a cross-section of environmental information based on the user's location.

National Ground Water Monitoring Network Data Portal This portal provides access to groundwater data from multiple, dispersed databases in a web-based mapping application. The portal contains current and historical data including water levels, water quality, lithology, and well construction. National Roster of Environmental Conflict Resolution and Consensus Building Professionals The roster search and referral system is accessible to anyone contemplating the use of consensus building and dispute resolution services where environmental, natural resources, or public lands issues are involved.

National Stormwater Calculator This EPA tool is a desktop application that estimates the annual amount of rainwater and frequency of runoff from a specific site anywhere in the United States including Puerto Rico. Estimates are based on local soil conditions, land cover, and historic rainfall records. It is designed to be used by anyone interested in reducing runoff from a property. The Calculator accesses several national databases that provide soil, topography, rainfall, and evaporation information for the chosen site.

The user supplies information about the site's land cover and selects the types of low impact development LID controls they would like to use. These reports certify whether permit holders are in compliance with their discharge standards. Existing dischargers are not required to submit a notice of termination to terminate coverage under the MSGP.

If your facility no longer needs industrial stormwater permit coverage, you do not need to submit an NOI for coverage under the MSGP. Search results display basic permit information, as well as a link to electronic permit documents when available. As of the database contains both stormwater and non-stormwater general permits. Because this is an ongoing effort, the search engine below may not include all general permits. If you are unable to find a permit or would like more information on a specific permit in the inventory, contact your permitting authority for assistance.

All other states have the authority to issue general permits. Pesticide Chemical Search This EPA web-based application that will allow users to easy access to chemical-specific information from the Office of Pesticide Programs' website and several other important sources. Pesticide Chemical Search is designed to consolidate information related to pesticide chemicals active ingredients , making it easier to find related regulatory and scientific information.

NSPS for Stationary Combustion Engines An online, interactive tool to help estimate specific regulatory requirements as related to the New Source Performance Standards NSPS for emissions from stationary compression ignition engine internal combustion engines, and stationary spark ignition internal combustion engines.

Included is basic information about each public water system, including: SDWIS also include violation information and enforcement information including actions states or EPA have taken to ensure that a public water system returns to compliance if it is in violation of a drinking water regulation. These regulations establish maximum contaminant levels, treatment techniques, and monitoring and reporting requirements to ensure that water systems provide safe water to their customers.

This search will help you to find your drinking water supplier and view its violations and enforcement history since Storm Water Management Model SWMM This EPA tool is a dynamic rainfall-runoff simulation model used for single event or long-term continuous simulation of runoff quantity and quality from primarily urban areas. The runoff component of SWMM operates on a collection of subcatchment areas on which rain falls and runoff is generated. SWMM tracks the quantity and quality of runoff generated within each subcatchment, and the flow rate, flow depth, and quality of water in each pipe and channel during a simulation period comprised of multiple time steps.

It was designed for use by watershed and stormwater practitioners to develop, evaluate, and select optimal BMP combinations at various watershed scales on the basis of cost and effectiveness. EPA has ten regional offices. Each regional office oversees local state, territory, and tribal UIC activities. Select your state from the provided menu, or click on your region to find local UIC information about: Events reported may be relevant to U.

Army and other Military Services' activities and operations. The Reviews are designed to alert environmental decision makers, planners and program managers of developments potentially relevant to their overall responsibilities. Compliance Assistance News Briefs Provides links to compliance assistance resources users should know about. Environmental Crimes Case Bulletin Monthly bulletins summarize publicized investigative activity and adjudicated cases by EPA's Criminal Enforcement special agents, forensic specialists, and legal support staff. Line This newsletter informs state, tribal, territorial, and federal UST regulators, consultants, contractors, and tank owners about UST and LUST activities, cleanup-fund issues, spill remediation, and prevention technologies.

You can sort the index alphabetically, by publication date, or by topic. Organizations The Auditing Roundtable A professional organization dedicated to the development and professional practice of environmental, health, and safety EHS auditing. Its mission is to enhance the practice of EHS auditing by creating a national forum and organization to advance ideas, procedures and member interaction. The Center conducts applied research to solve problems raised in the implementation of EPA rules and regulations and leads in developing innovative techniques, practices and procedures.

A Guide to Improving Municipal Stormwater Permits and Protecting Water Quality This guide, dated January and released by American Rivers, encourages permitting approaches that encourage or require "low impact development" or "green infrastructure. Compliance Auditing ASTM E, Standard Guide for Environmental Compliance Performance Assessment This guide is an organized collection of information and series of options for industry, regulators, auditors, consultants and the public, intended to measure compliance with environmental performance standards against established benchmarks.

It focuses on compliance with air, water, waste prevention, waste management, and toxic reduction standards for facilities in the United States. While the guide does not recommend a specific course of action, it establishes a tiered framework of essential components, beginning with those standards where a deviation presents the greatest potential public health, environmental, and business risks.

Compliance Inspection Manual for National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System This manual presents standard procedures for National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System inspections of wastewater treatment plants, pretreatment facilities, and other sites. While not specific to environmental compliance auditing, the processes and tools necessary for a high quality auditing program are detailed. A regulated entity has 21 days from the time it discovers that a violation has, or may have, occurred to disclose the violation in writing to EPA.

Discovery is when any officer, director, employee or agent of the facility has an objectively reasonable basis for believing that a violation has, or may have occurred. Entities must now make almost all disclosures through the eDisclosure System. Discovery, Disclosure, Correction and Prevention of Violations; Notice, Final Policy Statement In the 11 April revised policy, the incentives that EPA makes available for those who meet the terms of the Audit Policy include the elimination or substantial reduction of the gravity component of civil penalties and a determination not to recommend criminal prosecution of the disclosing entity.

The Policy also restates EPA's long-standing practice of not requesting copies of regulated entities' voluntary audit reports to trigger Federal enforcement investigations and reflects EPA's continuing commitment to encouraging voluntary self-policing while preserving fair and effective enforcement. It lengthens the prompt disclosure period to 21 days, clarifies that the independent discovery condition does not automatically preclude Audit Policy credit in the multi-facility context, and clarifies how the prompt disclosure and repeat violations conditions apply in the acquisitions context.

Interim Approach to Applying the Audit Policy to New Owners Published 1 August , this document describes Audit Policy incentives tailored for new owners that want to make a "clean start" at their recently acquired facilities by addressing environmental noncompliance that began prior to acquisition.

The manuals enable users to: Air Force, the U. The FGS-based manuals are updated as necessary; the service-specific supplements developed for use overseas are updated annually. The OSH Guide may be used in self-audits, external audits, and as a reference tool. The manual enables users to: The manuals are updated quarterly as necessary. Access is restricted to FedCenter. In addition, there is a "how to" manual on designing and implementing environmental compliance auditing programs for Federal agencies and facilities.

Active army installations are assessed for compliance performance approximately every three years. The document explains those situations where a proposal that is similar in nature to directives of an EO may otherwise be acceptable under the SEP policy regarding acceptance of proposals "that may not have otherwise occurred" without the settlement.

Jimenez of EPA Region 3. If you don't have a WBDG account, you will have to register for free before gaining access to the courses. Advanced Air Quality Management Course Classroom, Multiple Offerings The objective of this course is for each DoD student to comprehend advanced technical and regulatory requirements of air quality. The course will enable students to build on basic knowledge to effectively manage a complex and dynamic air quality program. After completing this course, the student should be familiar with the various interrelated aspects of air pollution control, understand the basic terminology, and have a rudimentary understanding of some of the technical aspects of regulating, measuring, and controlling air pollution.

The student will find links to the EPA Web site for further research in the air pollution control field. Each module in the course is composed of units that include introductory materials, graphics, and a quick quiz for review. Compliance, emission inventories and processes, sampling, permitting, pollution prevention and reduction strategy, control technology, indoor air quality, resource management, EPA perspective, conformity, sampling and analysis modeling, emission control technology and emission credits.

The course is intended for military Active duty or a civil service employee working in air compliance whether at regional or facility level. April 7 Webcast on Waters of the U. Proposed Rule Learn more about the recent U. Environmental Protection Agency and U. Army Corps of Engineers jointly released proposed rule to clarify protection under the Clean Water Act for streams and wetlands that form the foundation of the nation's water resources.

The webcast will provide a broad overview of the proposed rule and its costs and benefits. The webcast presentation will be posted in advance. Participants are eligible to receive a certificate for attending this webcast. Asbestos Activities Training Classroom Offered by Federal Occupational Health, classroom training is available related to asbestos abatement, asbestos inspection, asbestos operations and maintenance, and asbestos awareness. The courses vary in duration depending on the complexity of the material being addressed. The course is designed to teach environmental agency inspectors and other environmental compliance professionals core knowledge, skills, and cross program awareness needed to conduct quality inspections.

The course covers topics such as the role of the inspector, gathering and using evidence, sampling, inspection report writing, and the role of the inspector after the inspection is compete. The link to access the available courses is also located at this website.

Thermodynamics and Combustion Web-based, On Demand Explore thermodynamics, heat transfer and combustion during this video series. It is intended for those interested in learning more about boiler systems and the controls used for automatic operation. This course is offered by Seventhwave.

CAA General Conformity Training Modules Web-based, On Demand The General Conformity Rule ensures that the actions taken by federal agencies in nonattainment and maintenance areas do not interfere with a state's plans to meet national standards for air quality. The training module covers all aspects of the rule and is divided into four modules. Conflict Resolution Skills For Environmental Professionals Professionals Classroom, Multiple Offerings The overall goal of the course is for attendees to come away with an understanding of principles and techniques for maintaining a professional demeanor while managing conflict, as well as knowledge of strategies that help keep a conflict from getting in the way of productivity.

Construction and Demolition Waste Recycling Classroom, Multiple Offerings This day-long training provides the skills to develop, manage, monitor, document and promote a successful recycling program for construction and demolition debris. ECHO is a regularly updated resource, available to both internal and external parties that allows users to access detailed information including, but not limited to, the compliance status, inspection history, and pollutant discharges at any specific EPA-regulated site.

Webinar participants will learn how to work with all of ECHO's features and will gain understanding of a valuable resource that can enhance their understanding of monitoring and enforcement of environmental regulations. E-Manifest Webinars Web-based Multiple webinars are available concerning the development of the EPA's e-manifesting system, how the system will work, and who does what. Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Tutorial Web-based, On Demand Addresses inventorying chemicals, emergency planning, emergency releases, and community right-to-know.

Instructions are provided on this website. Ethics of Environmental Enforcement Web-based Ethics of Environmental Enforcement Web-based This course will identify the ways in which unethical behaviors, by white collar criminals, might affect the course of an inspection or an investigation. Defining ethics as it is related to the environmental enforcement professional; Understanding the concept of environmental justice; Understanding the difference between ethics and morals; Understanding the ethical issues for the environmental enforcement professional.

Project EnCriPT is a training resource for various aspects of environmental enforcement. Facilitation Skills for Environmental Professionals Classroom, Multiple Offerings Facilitation skills are used to form productive teams, plan programs, and to implement controversial projects. Trained facilitators help groups communicate productively, constructively manage diverse points of view, and create concrete actions as a result of meetings.

The training targets GSA's building managers but can be used as needed for helping to develop your own agency's training program. The materials include a test, or assessment at the end to quiz trainees on what they have learned. DOD Environmental Policy; hazardous terminology; Pollution Prevention P2 ; identification and classification of hazardous materials and hazardous wastes; health effects and personal safety; packaging, labeling, handling, storage, and transportation procedures; contingency planning and release response; and hazardous materials and waste laws, regulations, and policies.

It provides the attendees with fundamental information to handle hazardous waste as required by the RCRA regulations 40 CFR , by appropriate state and local requirements, and DOD policy. FY19 Defense Hazardous Waste Refresher Course Classroom, Multiple Offerings This 8-hour course focuses on environmental concerns related to the handling and disposition of hazardous wastes.

The curriculum includes a general review of hazardous waste regulations as they relate to the waste handler's job; identification and labeling requirements; health hazards; storage compatibility; spill response; safety data sheets SDS ; and hazardous waste classification. The course is intended to satisfy the requirement of yearly RCRA update training for hazardous waste handlers. The webinar proceedings are now available and attached to this earlier announcement see below: This webinar will focus on three Federal Facilities that have successfully implemented green infrastructure projects for stormwater management.

Speakers will discuss green infrastructure projects such as rain gardens and impervious pavement as well as their lessons learned. Registrants will be given to an Adobe Connect link that provides access to the webinar. For further information, contact Anne Fenn, fenn. Course trains personnel to perform their duties safely and in compliance with legal and Navy policy requirements.

Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response HAZWOPER 40 Hour Course This 5-day course is designed for personnel involved with the investigation and remediation of uncontrolled hazardous waste sites and, to a lesser extent, response to an accident involving hazardous materials. It provides basic information needed to meet the forty hours training requirements of 29 CFR After completing this course, participants will be more knowledgeable in hazardous waste operations, team functions, personnel health and safety procedures, and operation of field monitoring equipment.

Personnel not directly employed by a government agency e. EPA's ECHO provides integrated compliance and enforcement information for about , regulated facilities nationwide. Its features range from simple to advanced, catering to users who want to conduct broad analyses as well as those who need to perform complex searches.

Specifically, ECHO allows you to find and download information on: Introduction to Ambient Air Monitoring Web-based, On Demand This course introduces terms used in ambient air monitoring and presents practical information about the monitoring process. Theoretical monitoring concepts are also described. They will demonstrate the search process and how to interpret the reports received from a search.

Introduction to Emission Inventories Web-based Sponsored by EPA's APTI, this introductory course is designed to assist air pollution professionals and others in understanding the process of developing an air emissions inventory. The course will define common terms and concepts associated with the development of an emissions inventory as well as presenting and explaining the various components of developing an air emissions inventory.

This course will cover the major aspects of preparing emission inventories by examining each step in the emissions inventory development process. Introduction to Environmental Justice Web-based, On Demand This one hour web-based course makes available consistent, high quality environmental justice training to Federal personnel across the country.

Introduction to Hazardous Waste Generation and Handling Classroom, Multiple Offerings This 24 hour course provides information needed by personnel who generate hazardous waste to perform their duties safely and in compliance with legal and Navy policy standards. Results of evaluation activities are used as part of the planning process and management review, to improve performance and correct deficiencies over time. Periodic audits that enable a deeper and more critical appraisal of all of the elements of the EHS management system see Figure 2.

To maximize benefits, competent persons independent of the area or activity should conduct the audits. The use of external, impartial auditors should be considered to assist in evaluation of the EHS management system. When performing these reviews, it is important that the organization have a plan for following up on the results of the audit to ensure that problems are addressed and that recognition is given where it is deserved. The concept of change management in the laboratory environment varies markedly from methods typically prescribed, for example, in manufacturing operations.

By its very nature, the business of conducting experiments is constantly changing. As such, a number of standard practices are used to identify appropriate handling practices, containment methods, and required procedures for conducting laboratory work in a safe manner. Several examples of these practices include. Top management should review the organization's EHS management system at regular intervals to ensure its continuing suitability, adequacy, and effectiveness.

This review includes assessing opportunities for improvement and the need for changes in the management system, including the EHS policy and objectives. The results of the management review should be documented. The outputs from management review should include any decisions and actions related to possible change to EHS policy, objectives, and other elements of the management system, consistent with the commitment to continual improvement.

The management system review ensures a regular process that evaluates the EHS management system in order to identify deficiencies and modify them. Systemic gaps, evidence that targets are not being met, or compliance issues that are discovered during compliance or risk assessments indicate a possible need for revision to the management system or its implementation.

The system consists of six guiding principles and five core management safety functions. In addition, in , and in recognition of a gap within the management system, DOE identified four supplemental safety culture elements. It is important that each organization develop a management system to meet the needs of the organization.

If the burden of organizational oversight and management of the ESH program is not appropriately tied to the organizational risk, then the safety program may lose credibility in the eyes of the people it supports. The foundation of all management system approaches is the identification of EHS concerns, which if not adequately controlled, can result in employee injury or illness, adverse effects on the environment, and regulatory action.

This standard was created to minimize employee exposure to hazardous chemicals in the laboratory and sets forth guidelines for employers and trained laboratory personnel engaged in the use of hazardous chemicals. A CHP that is facility specific can assist in promoting a culture of safety to protect employees from exposure to hazardous materials. The duties of the CHO vary widely from one institution to another but may include the following: Qualified by training or experience to provide technical guidance in the development and implementation of the provisions of the Laboratory Standard.

Oversees implementation and more Determining what belongs in the CHP for a given laboratory should be the result of conversations between the Chemical Hygiene Officer CHO , the director of the laboratory, and laboratory personnel. The laboratory director and the individuals performing the research are responsible for following safe practices, and they are the people most familiar with the work being performed. However, they are less likely to be familiar with all relevant regulations, standards, and codes than the CHO, and they may benefit from assistance in identification and assessment of hazards within the laboratory.

Thus there must be communication across the groups to ensure that the CHP is complete and that it contains no irrelevant information e. Safety rules and regulations are created to protect laboratory personnel from unsafe work practices and exposure to hazardous materials. Consistently following and enforcing the safety rules in order to create a safe and healthful laboratory environment in which to work will help encourage a culture of safety within the workplace. What follows is a description of laboratory safety rules, but these will not cover every contingency.

Part of the culture of safety is communication and discussion about safety hazards within the laboratory, so that new concerns can be addressed as quickly as possible. Visitors, including children, are permitted in laboratories where hazardous substances are stored or are in use or hazardous activities are in progress as long as they are properly protected. If minors are expected in a laboratory e. The institution should have a review process regarding minors in the laboratory, and prior to their arrival, scheduled activities should be approved.

Other laboratory personnel in the area should be made aware that minors will be present. No pets are permitted in laboratories. Note that service animals are not pets. They are highly trained and may be present in a laboratory. However, a clean, safe area should be provided where the animal can wait. It is not prudent to work alone in a laboratory. Thus it is imperative that, whenever working in the laboratory, others are actively aware of your activities.

If faced with a situation where you feel it is necessary to work alone in a laboratory:. Many chemicals and solutions routinely used in laboratories present a significant health risk when handled improperly. All things are poison and nothing is without poison. Today, in that same spirit, trained laboratory personnel are encouraged to reduce personal risk by minimizing exposure to hazardous chemicals and by eliminating unsafe work practices in the laboratory.

Routes of exposure to hazardous materials include contact with skin and eyes, inhalation, ingestion, and injection. Acute exposure is defined as short durations of exposure to high concentrations of hazardous materials in the workplace. Chronic exposure is defined as continual exposure over a long period of time to low concentrations of hazardous materials in the workplace. Overexposure to chemicals, whether a result of a single episode or long-term exposure, can result in adverse health effects. These effects are categorized as acute or chronic.

Acute health effects appear rapidly after only one exposure and symptoms include rashes, dizziness, coughing, and burns. Chronic health effects may take months or years before they are diagnosed. Symptoms of chronic health effects include joint paint, neurological disorders, and tumors. For more information on toxicity of laboratory chemicals, see Chapter 4 , section 4. In addition to the hazards associated with the chemicals themselves, flammable, reactive, explosive, and physical hazards may be present in the laboratory.

Reactive hazards include pyrophorics and incompatible chemicals; explosive hazards include peroxide formers and powders; and physical hazards include cryogenic liquids, electrical equipment, lasers, compressed gas cylinders and reactions that involve high pressure or vacuum lines. For more information about these hazards within a laboratory, see Chapter 4 , sections 4. An array of controls exists to protect laboratory personnel from the hazards listed above.

Work practices to minimize exposure to hazardous chemicals can be found in Chapter 6. Good housekeeping practices in the laboratory has a number of benefits. For example, in terms of safety, it can reduce the number of chemical hazards health, physical, reactive, etc. Practices that encourage the appropriate labeling and storage of chemicals can reduce the risks of mixing of incompatible chemicals and assist with regulatory compliance.

From a security standpoint, order in the laboratory makes it easier to identify items out of place or missing. And finally, good housekeeping can help reduce scientific error by, for example, reducing the chances of samples becoming confused or contaminated and keeping equipment clean and in good working order. More information about housekeeping practices can be found in Chapter 6 , section 6. One of the most important components of a laboratory safety program is chemical management.

Prudent chemical management includes the following processes. Preferably, all substances should be received in a central location. Personnel should be trained to identify signs of breakage e. Some organizations have specific purchasing policies to prohibit unauthorized purchases of chemicals and other hazardous materials.

The purchaser must assume responsibility for ownership of the chemical. Because of the possibility of a chemical leak or release and subsequent exposure, chemical shipments should only be received by trained personnel in a laboratory or central receiving area with proper ventilation. Neither administrative offices nor the mail room is appropriate for receipt or opening of chemical shipments. To lessen risk of exposure to hazardous chemicals, trained laboratory personnel should separate and store all chemicals according to hazard category and compatibility.

In the event of an accident involving a broken container or a chemical spill, incompatible chemicals that are stored in close proximity can mix to produce fires, hazardous fumes, and explosions. Laboratory personnel should read the MSDS and heed the precautions regarding the storage requirements of the chemicals in the laboratory. A detailed chemical compatibility table is included in Chapter 5 , section 5.

To avoid accidents, all chemical containers must be properly labeled with the full chemical name, not abbreviations, and using a permanent marker. All transfer vessels should have the following label information:. Incoming chemical shipments should be dated promptly upon receipt, and chemical stock should be rotated to ensure use of older chemicals. It is good practice to date peroxide formers upon receipt and date again when the container is opened so that the user can dispose of the material according to the recommendations on the MSDS.

Peroxide formers should be stored away from heat and light in sealed airtight containers with tight-fitting, nonmetal lids. Test regularly for peroxides and discard the material prior to the expiration date. For more information about storage and handling of peroxides, see Chapter 4 , section 4. Do not store liquid chemicals higher than 5 ft on open shelves. Do not store chemicals within 18 in. Use secondary containment devices i. Do not store chemicals in the laboratory chemical hood, on the floor, in the aisles, in hallways, in areas of egress, or on the benchtop.

Chemicals should be stored away from heat and direct sunlight. Only laboratory-grade explosion-proof refrigerators and freezers should be used to store properly sealed and labeled chemicals that require cool storage in the laboratory. Periodically clean and defrost the refrigerator and freezer to ensure maximum efficiency. Domestic refrigerators and freezers should not be used to store chemicals; they possess ignition sources and can cause dangerous and costly laboratory fires and explosions. Do not store food or beverages in the laboratory refrigerator.

For more information, see Chapter 7 , section 7. Highly hazardous chemicals must be stored in a well-ventilated secure area that is designated for this purpose. Cyanides must be stored in a tightly closed container that is securely locked in a cool dry cabinet to which access is restricted.

Protect cyanide containers against physical damage and separate them from incompatibles. When handling cyanides, follow good hygiene practices and regularly inspect your PPE. Use proper disposal techniques. Flammable liquids should be stored in approved flammable-liquid containers and storage cabinets. Observe National Fire Protection Association, International Building Code, International Fire Code, and other local code requirements that limit the quantity of flammables per cabinet, laboratory space, and building.

Consult the local fire marshal for assistance, if needed. Store odiferous materials in ventilated cabinets. Chemical storage cabinets may be used for long-term storage of limited amounts of chemicals. Rooms that are used specifically for chemical storage and handling i. If flammable chemicals are stored in the room, the chemical storage area must be a spark-free environment and only spark-free tools should be used within the room.

Special grounding and bonding must be installed to prevent static charge while dispensing solvents. Important information about handling chemicals can be found in the MSDS. A comprehensive file of MSDSs must be kept in the laboratory or be readily accessible online to all employees during all work shifts.

Trained laboratory personnel should always read and heed the label and the MSDS before using a chemical for the first time. Laboratory personnel should be familiar with the types of PPE that must be worn when handling the chemical. Ensure that the ventilation will be adequate to handle the chemicals in the laboratory.

One should be familiar with the institutional CHP and EAP so that appropriate actions are taken in the event of a chemical spill, fire, or explosion.

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On a basic level, you cannot safely manage something if you do not know that you have it on-site. Thus, a system for maintaining an accurate inventory of the laboratory chemicals on campus or within an organization is essential for compliance with local and state regulations and any building codes that apply. Every laboratory should maintain an up-to-date chemical inventory. A physical chemical inventory should be performed at least annually, or as requested by the CHO. Although the software that is used to maintain the inventory and the method of performing the chemical inventory will vary from one institution to another, ultimately, the chemical inventory should include the following information:.

Note that the chemical name should be listed with its synonyms. This will allow for cross-indexing for tracking of chemicals and help reduce unnecessary inventory. Once the inventory is complete, use suitable security precautions regarding the accessibility of the information in the chemical inventory. For more information about laboratory security, see Chapter It is prudent practice to use a secondary containment device i.

When transporting several containers, use carts with attached side rails and trays of single piece construction at least 2 in. Bottles of liquids should be separated to avoid breakage and spills. Avoid high-traffic areas when moving chemicals within the building. When possible, use freight elevators when transporting chemicals and do not allow other passengers. If you must use a general traffic elevator, ask other passengers to wait until you have delivered the chemicals. Always ground and bond the drum and receiving vessel when transferring flammable liquids from a drum to prevent static charge buildup.

Use a properly operating chemical fume hood, local exhaust, or adequate ventilation, as verified by monitoring, when transferring PHSs. All outgoing domestic and international chemical shipments must be authorized and handled by the institutional shipper. The shipper must be trained in U. Department of Transportation DOT regulations for ground shipments and must receive mandatory International Air Transport Association training for air shipments.

DOT oversees the shipment of hazardous materials and has the authority to impose citations and fines in the event of noncompliance. For more detailed information on the shipment of chemicals, see Chapter 5 , section 5. All chemical waste must be stored and disposed of in compliance with applicable federal, state, local, and institutional regulatory requirements. Waste containers should be properly labeled and should be the minimum size that is required. There should be at least 2 in. For more information about handling of hazardous waste, see Chapter 8.

A program of periodic laboratory inspections helps keep laboratory facilities and equipment in a safe operating condition. Inspections safeguard the quality of the institution's laboratory safety program. A variety of inspection protocols may be used, and the organization's management should select and participate in the design of the inspection program appropriate for that institution's unique needs. The program should embrace the following goals:. Approach these goals with a degree of flexibility.

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Consider the different types of inspection, the frequency with which they are conducted, and who conducts them. A discussion of items to inspect and several possible inspection protocols follows, but is not all-inclusive. Laboratory inspections are performed by EHS staff, the CHO, the safety director, laboratory staff, a safety committee, or an outside entity with the requisite qualifications and experience.

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The inspection checklist can include sections on chemical storage, chemical waste, housekeeping, PPE, laboratory chemical hoods, gas cylinder storage, emergency safety equipment, signs and labels, and facility issues. Following each inspection, a detailed report is sent to the laboratory supervisor and appropriate administration.

Photographs taken during the inspection process can emphasize the critical nature of a violation. Consider giving special recognition to laboratories demonstrating good laboratory practice and those that have demonstrated significant improvements in safety. There are several types of inspection programs, each providing a different perspective and function. A comprehensive laboratory inspection program includes a combination of some or all of these programs.

Trained laboratory personnel and supervisors should complete general equipment and facility inspections on a regular basis. For certain types of equipment in constant use, such as gas chromatographs, daily inspections may be appropriate. Other types of equipment may need only weekly or monthly inspection or inspection prior to use if operated infrequently. Keep a record of inspection attached to the equipment or in a visible area. The challenge for any inspection program is to keep laboratory personnel continuously vigilant. They need positive encouragement to develop the habit of inspection and to adopt the philosophy that good housekeeping and maintenance for their workspace protect them and may help them produce better research results.

To supplement an inspection program, some institutions promote self-inspections within the laboratories. Laboratory personnel may conduct their own inspections for their own benefit or management may ask them to self-audit and report their findings, using the routine inspections as a check on the self-inspections. This approach can be mutually beneficial, raising awareness, promoting the institutional safety culture, and easing the burden on management. A program audit includes both a physical inspection and a review of the operations and the facilities.

This type of audit is generally conducted by a team, which includes the laboratory supervisor, senior management, and laboratory safety representatives, and presents an excellent opportunity to promote a culture of safety and prudence within an organization. The supervisor and senior management have the opportunity to take a close look at the facilities and operations. They can discuss with individual workers issues of interest or concern that may fall outside the scope of the actual inspection. A constructive and positive approach to observed problems and issues fosters an attitude of cooperation and leadership with regard to safety and helps build and reinforce a culture of teamwork and cooperation that has benefits far beyond protecting personnel and the physical facilities.

The audit begins with a discussion of the safety program and culture, and a review of operations, written programs, training records, and pertinent policies and procedures and how they are implemented in the laboratory. A laboratory inspection that includes interviews with laboratory personnel follows to determine the level of safety awareness.

An open discussion with key personnel can ascertain how personnel, supervisors, managers, and safety officers can better support each other. This type of audit provides a much more comprehensive view of the laboratory than a routine inspection. One of the most effective safety tools a facility can use is periodic peer-level inspections. Usually, the people who fulfill this role work in the organization they serve, but not in the area being surveyed. Personnel may participate on an ad hoc basis, or the institution may select specific individuals to be part of a more formal, ongoing inspection team.

A peer inspection program has the intrinsic advantage of being perceived as less threatening than other forms of surveys or audits. Peer inspections depend heavily on the knowledge and commitment of the people who conduct them. Individuals who volunteer or are selected to perform inspections for only a brief time may not learn enough about an operation or procedure to observe and comment constructively.

People who receive involuntary appointments or who serve too long may not maintain the desired level of diligence. A high-quality peer-level inspection program reduces the need for frequent inspections by supervisory personnel.


However, peer inspections should not replace other inspections completely. Walk-throughs by the organization's leadership demonstrate commitment to the safety programs, which is key to their continuing success. The organization's EHS staff, the safety committee, or an equivalent group may also conduct laboratory inspections on a routine basis.

These inspections may be comprehensive, targeted to certain operations or experiments, focused on a particular type of inspection such as safety equipment and systems, or audits to check the work of other inspectors. Safety staff are not the only nonlaboratory personnel who may conduct safety inspections. Facility engineers or maintenance personnel may add considerable value to safety inspection programs. They are also given the opportunity to gain a better perspective on laboratory work.

It is advisable to have a representative from facilities engineering present during inspections so physical deficiencies can be appropriately and clearly noted and understood and priorities set for correction. Many types of elective inspections or audits are conducted by outside experts, regulatory agencies, emergency responders, or other organizations. They may inspect a particular facility, equipment, or procedure either during the preexperiment design phase or during operations. As a matter of safety and security, if someone requests entry to a laboratory for the purpose of an audit without a recognized escort, ask to see his or her credentials and contact the EHS office or other appropriate parties.

Tours, walk-throughs, and inspections by regulatory or municipal organizations offer the opportunity to build relationships with governmental agencies and the public. For example, an annual visit by the fire department serving a particular facility will acquaint personnel with the operations and the location of particular hazards. If these individuals are ever called into the facility to handle an emergency, their familiarity with it will make them more effective. During their walk-through, they may offer comments and suggestions for improvements.

A relationship built over time helps make this input positive and constructive. If a pending operation or facility change may raise public attention and concern, an invitation targeted to specific people or groups may prevent problems. Holding public open houses from time to time helps build a spirit of support and trust. Many opportunities exist to apply this type of open approach to dealing with the public.

An organization only needs to consider when to use it and what potential benefits may accrue. Inspections and audits by outside consultants or peer institutions are especially helpful to identify both best practices and vulnerabilities. Many times, the inspectors bring with them experiences and examples from other laboratories that prove useful. When choosing a consultant, best practice is to find one with experience conducting similar audits of peer institutions.

More and more often, health and safety experts, facilities staff, and laboratory personnel from peer institutions form inspection teams that conduct inspections of each other's laboratories. Such an arrangement can be beneficial and economical. Many regulatory agencies promote institutions conducting self-audits, by either consultants or peer auditors, and reporting the findings to the agency.

As an incentive, any violations noted in the self-audit may result in reduced or waived fines and fewer visits from the agency inspectors. It is important to fully understand the regulatory agency's self-reporting policy before implementing this option. In some cases, the institution must commit to remediating identified deficiencies within a specific time period.

Finally, regulatory agencies may conduct announced or unannounced inspections on a routine or sporadic basis. Laboratories and institutions should keep their programs and records up-to-date at all times to be prepared for such inspections. Any significant incident or accident within a facility may trigger one or more inspections or investigations by outside agencies. Evidence that the underlying safety programs are sound may help limit negative findings and potential penalties. Whether an inspection is announced or unannounced depends on the objective. There are many advantages to announcing an inspection ahead of time.

By announcing and scheduling inspections, the inspectors are more likely to interact with the laboratory personnel and the supervisors. The inspection can be a good learning experience for all and will feel less like a safety-police action and more like a value-added service, with the right attitude and approach. However, if the objective is to observe real-time conditions in preparation for a regulatory inspection, an unannounced targeted inspection might be appropriate.

Before the inspection, have a checklist of inspection items, along with the criteria and the basis for each issue. The criteria may be based on regulations, institutional policies, or recommended practices. Sharing the checklist with laboratory personnel prior to the inspection helps them perform their own inspections before and periodically after the inspection. A photograph is much more effective than a long explanation in convincing a manager that something needs attention. Inspection checklists take a variety of formats and vary in length depending on the type and focus of the inspection.

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Although most inspection forms are paper, some are computer based. Pose the issue so that a positive outcome is a YES, making it easy to spot problems. Always leave room for comments. There are a number of commercial products on the market offering Web-based applications that work on a laptop or notebook computer. Checklist programs are available for handheld digital devices. Some may download into spreadsheets or word-processing programs. Others automatically create reports that can be e-mailed to recipients.

All are intended to streamline the record-keeping and reporting process. When conducting an inspection, interacting with the individuals in the laboratory is important. Even if inspectors are mainly looking at equipment and conditions, laboratory personnel can provide a great deal of information and the conversation itself may foster positive relationships between laboratory personnel and the group conducting the inspection.

Speaking with laboratory personnel also helps gauge how well training programs are working and provides feedback for possible improvements to the laboratory safety program. Take notes and make comments on the inspection form to be able to recall the details and describe any problems in the report. Where possible, take photographs of issues that need particular attention. Point out problems as they are found and show laboratory personnel how to fix them.

If the problem is corrected during the inspection, make a note that it was resolved. As soon as possible after an inspection, prepare a report for the laboratory supervisor and others, as appropriate.

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  • This may include the CHO, the chair or manager of the department, line supervisors, and directors. Depending on the type and focus of the inspection, it may be helpful to hold a meeting with the key individuals to review the findings. The report should include all problems noted during the inspection, along with the criteria for correcting them.

    If photographs were taken, include them in the report. The report should also note any best practices and any improvements since the last inspection. Include a reasonable time line for corrective actions. Be sure to follow up with the laboratory to ensure that recommended corrections are made.

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