Table Comparing the Spelling of Names.. Translations of Texts Cited in Chapter Appendix 4. At the conclusion of the play, the students and public of Leipzig cleared a path through town, with the men removing their hats and renewing calls for the playwright s long life as he passed by. After years of struggle and frustration, Schiller was at the pinnacle of his career. Unless otherwise indicated, all translations are mine. Wiese states that the performance on 17 September was its third, and Schiller s correspondence as published in NA supports this conclusion. Wiese characterizes the reception of the play as a begeisterte Huldigung spirited homage paid by the students of Leipzig but includes no directly quoted interjections.
Why has the initial theatrical success of his play not endured, as with both his earlier and later works? Less than six years later, Goethe would write in his diary 27 May of what he saw as the primary mistake of the play: Although the play would continue to be presented for many years throughout Europe and inspire the imagination of numerous artists, writers, and composers, the process of reevaluating it had already begun. At the dawn of the nineteenth century, Friedrich Schiller had reinvented the image of Joan of Arc, with consequences that were to affect theatrical representations of Joan for the rest of that century and well into the twentieth.
Seeing these depictions as unworthy of her nobility, Schiller set out to create a more powerful character who suffers at the hands of fate but changes history by sheer force of will. He took as his allegorical model the characterization of Iphigenia made famous by Euripides in Iphigeneia among the Taurians and Iphigeneia in Aulis, in which the ancient Greek tragedian transformed his heroine from a pitiable victim of fate into a fearsome priestess able to reverse a familial curse and unite a nation at war.
The implications of this statement are addressed in the next chapter. Inspired by Euripides, he introduced romantic interests, paternal betrayal, and a rescue almost worthy of a deus ex machina. In place of condemnation by the church, she finds herself denounced by her own father. This dissertation proposes to examine the literary and aesthetic context in which Schiller created his drama, and to present several reasons for its notoriously ahistorical character. The fundamental, guiding concept here will be sublime sanctity, which I plan to argue is the product of Schiller s appropriation of Euripides s themes into his play.
Sublime sanctity, as I wish to show, is the essential quality in Schiller s depiction of Joan, an idea that seizes the willing spectator and enables the play to achieve its intended force. Additionally, I intend to argue that subsequent versions achieve their force only by retaining key salient qualities that Schiller s Joan shares with Euripides s Iphigeneia.
After establishing the ideas and principles underpinning sublime sanctity in Schiller s play, the investigation will proceed chronologically, with an examination of other manifestations of Joan of Arc, primarily in the theater, that trace their provenance directly to Schiller or, in the case of Shaw s Saint Joan, bear a high degree of affinity with his creation.
The discussion will return often to the fluctuating distinctions between classicism and romanticism, idealism and realism, philosophy and history, and the impact produced by these. I will attempt to account for the enduring appeal or just as often the lack thereof of the various plays and operas on the basis of these very themes throughout the nineteenth century across Europe.
I shall consider these ideas more as reflections of the circumstances in which the works were created than as the basis for assessing their dramatic impact. Ultimately, the dissertation will contend that the dramatic value of each of the theatrical works under discussion ought to be judged by the degree to which the various authors and composers preserve the salient elements of sublime sanctity and create an atmosphere in which the audience may respond to it. The first clue that Schiller plans to radicalize Joan s image comes from his play s subtitle: The dissonance between the term romantic and the essentially classical notion of tragedy suggests that this is to be a play challenging conventional ideas of genre.
Schiller had decided by this time in his career that tragedy was his natural medium, and therefore that this was the genre in which he felt that the story of Joan of Arc was best suited to be reconceived. He looked to the tragic method of Euripides to provide a model for his new drama. That model is found most explicitly in Euripides s two plays, Iphigeneia among the Taurians and Iphigeneia in Aulis. Although it would cost him a good deal in terms of criticism, he was emboldened by Euripides s treatment of Iphigenia to be inventive with the facts of Joan of Arc s life, just as the Greek tragedian had altered conventional mythology for ironic effect.
The specific choices of inventiveness constitute one of the romantic elements of the play and, along with the tragic Greek elements, contribute to its mythologizing effect. In formulating his plot, Schiller was determined to obliterate the impression left by Shakespeare and Voltaire s scurrilous 7 depictions of Joan. This accounts for the appearance and nature of 7 Scurrility is the term used by Shaw to describe specifically Shakespeare s treatment of Joan preface to Saint Joan xxvii.
The relationship of his play to Schiller s is examined in Chapter 5. Three examples based on Schiller s predecessors will suffice for the present: Schiller s Sorel plays a much more beneficial role as both a support to the weak dauphin, Charles VII, and an important ally at court for Joan, whom Schiller calls Johanna. Some commentators have objected to certain other moments in Schiller s play because they are in various ways inconsistent with the true story of Joan.
Three of them come in quick succession mid-way through the play. In Act III, Johanna kills a soldier named Montgomery, an act which contradicts all testimony given by Joan of Arc herself, as well as other witnesses at her trials, that she never killed anyone, despite active engagement in a full year of combat.
Later in the same act, a Black Knight appears, a wayward specter ein widerspenst ger Geist who warns Johanna to end her military campaign and then sinks into darkness amid thunder and lightning. In the next scene, Johanna encounters an English officer named Lionel and briefly falls in love with him, a violation of the Blessed Mother s command that Johanna recounts near the start of the play: Schiller s Johanna is not tried and burned at the stake; instead, she escapes her English and Burgundian captors and dies honorably 8 The love of men is not permitted to stir your heart. For these reasons, it is perhaps useful to think of the play as a palimpsest, on which one discerns the residue of Shakespeare s play and Voltaire s poem, as well as the more constructive presence of Euripides s Iphigeneia plays.
In doing so, the sometimes puzzling aspects of Schiller s play come to be seen more clearly as his attempt to eradicate Shakespeare and Voltaire s influence, while the Euripidean elements emerge as hallmarks of the aesthetic potential he believed only tragic drama could unleash to create a sublime experience for the viewer. Before pursuing these important aspects of Schiller s adaptation, it might be useful to offer a list of the primary sources to be considered here and elsewhere, along with a brief description of the story that each respective source tells and when it appeared: It became so popular, however, that unauthorized versions began appearing all over Europe, with the consequence that he finally decided to publish an edited version in The closest we come to an objective source, universally acknowledged as reliable, is the transcripts of her two trials: The unfortunate reality is that there is no completely objective, or fair-minded, source on the life of Joan of Arc.
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The transcripts of her trials are, nonetheless, enormously valuable in the attempt to separate facts from pure speculation and rumor. They were first made available to the public by Jules Quicherat between and Pernoud , which means that the documents were unknown to Shakespeare, Voltaire, and Schiller.
These earlier authors drew upon other sources, which will be cited in the text. Quicherat was the first in a long and still growing line of historians and scholars to attempt to bring the true story of Joan of Arc to the attention of the world. His seminal work has been reedited several times Pernoud. Pierre Champion s publication of the condemnation trial in is valued, alongside that of Quicherat, especially for his commentary on the events and personages surrounding Joan of Arc s history. The list of subsequent biographies, revisions, redactions, and reevaluations is voluminous, and many will find mention in this dissertation, but each of their writers ultimately seems to lose a degree of objectivity in service to some political or theoretical purpose.
Recalling her first visit to the United States in , she asserts:. But soon after that moment, I was imprudent enough to open the documents of her nullification trial and I found myself literally incapable of closing them. Since then Joan has led me to new horizons and fresh interests xi.
That the author established her academic credentials as a medievalist with indifference to Joan of Arc, and then subsequently immersed herself in the competing and contradictory sources that have accrued over time, seems to save her writing from the bias and preconceived notions that permeate so much of Joan of Arc scholarship.
For this reason, when points of fact are adduced in the present work, more often than not, the source consulted will be Pernoud s Joan of Arc: Martin s Press in Iphigeneia among the Taurians and Iphigeneia in Aulis. The first, referred to here as IT, is generally acknowledged as a product of BCE, whereas the second, denoted as IA, was written in approximately BCE and produced posthumously some two years later.
Both plays turn on the impulse to commit human sacrifice at the bidding of divine power and the effect of this act on the family and community surrounding the ritual. The instances in Greek myth of the legend of Iphigenia are broad and varied, but among the most famous, before the appearance of Euripides s plays, was in the Oresteia trilogy by Aeschylus BCE.
Although she never appears on stage, her ritual sacrifice by her father, Agamemnon, is a foregone conclusion that leads his wife, Clytemnestra, to murder him in revenge. When the presumably murdered child suddenly appeared on the stage at the beginning of Euripides s Iphigeneia among the Taurians, the audience at the festival in Athens must have been bewildered. Euripides had re-opened a previously closed narrative. This re-evaluation of received wisdom, of a history being re-written, is very likely what attracted so many Europeans to Euripides s version of the story in the eighteenth century.
We have only to consider the way in which Goethe reinvented Faust to see why Schiller was so interested in doing the same with historical figures such as Mary Stuart, Don Carlos of Spain, and most relevant to the present discussion, Joan of Arc. Instead of providing a mere footnote to the legend of the Trojan War, in Euripides s final tragedy, Iphigeneia becomes the linchpin for the entire expedition. As noted above, Euripides wrote the two plays six years apart. It is reasonable to assume that he initially wrote the first without any thought of ever writing the second, especially since he sets the action of the first play after the Trojan War, whereas the second play takes place earlier, before the Trojan War.
These two plays do not constitute portions of a trilogy, such as was the custom in Athens in the annual spring festival of the god Dionysus. Often the Greek playwrights submitted three works with rather different subject matter, but just as often they would return to explore again topics or characters they had treated earlier, as Sophocles does with Oedipus. Ewans, Opera f To compound the complexity of this timeline, Antigone, generally considered the final play of the Oedipus trilogy, was written first, around BCE.
Nevertheless, scholars generally consider the three plays a trilogy, albeit written over the span of some three decades. Scholars have not deemed Euripides s two Iphigeneia plays a cycle, perhaps for the simple reason that there is no relevant 11 Readers only familiar with Homer s version of the Trojan expedition in the Iliad may be puzzled by the myth of Iphigeneia, since she has no place in it. Other daughters of other kings and princes form the subject of the disputes that must be resolved to permit the Greek fleet to sail.
But among the ancients, Homer seems to be in the minority in excluding the sacrifice of Iphigenia to appease Artemis. In addition to Euripides s plays, the episode is mentioned in Aeschylus s Oresteia, as well as in Ovid s Metamorphoses Book 13,. Although versions of other Euripidean plays dealing with the unfortunate Atreides family, most notably Elektra and Orestes, are extant, the plots of these plays keep well beyond the timeline of the two Iphigeneia plays and are generally in accordance with the more conventional narrative of the Oresteia.
They essentially take place in the intervening years between Iphigeneia s abortive sacrifice at Aulis and the reunion of Iphigeneia with her brother, Orestes, years later in Tauris. Ultimately, it is not necessary to prove conclusively that the two plays form a continuous narrative, although much evidence exists for this purpose.
It is more important to see that Schiller thought of the two plays as a continuous narrative and felt it appropriate therefore to draw upon elements from both in formulating his Joan of Arc play. To this end, a short look at the synopses of the two plays may be helpful. The girl whose sacrifice by her father, Agamemnon, led to a chain of revenge murders of Agamemnon by Clytemnestra, then of Clytemnestra by Orestes appears on stage, telling us her story and that of her family. She did not die; she was rescued by the intervention of the goddess Artemis, who replaced her with a deer on the sacrificial altar and transported her to the savage land of the Taurians that is now her home.
In Tauris, she serves as priestess to King Thoas, who has ordered all Greeks who venture into his kingdom to be sacrificed in the temple of Artemis. The public nature of her office is in sharp contrast to the private, familial connections on which the plot of IT turns. This course will be reversed in IA, the plot of which follows an arc. Iphigeneia oversees the rituals in Tauris, but the slaying is the concern of others Kovacs IV ; that is, it is carried out by attendants in the temple.
As the play begins, she is on her way to the temple to offer libations for the memory of her brother, Orestes, whose death she interprets as having taken place on the basis of a dream. We immediately learn that her interpretation of the dream is false, because as Iphigeneia disappears into the temple, Orestes comes onto the stage with his friend, Pylades. Their arrival is eventually reported to Iphigeneia by a shepherd, although he learns only the name of the friend, who is unknown to Iphigeneia.
The two men are brought before her, and she learns that they are not only from Greece, but from Argos, her native town. Iphigeniea decides that Pylades will be spared to return to Argos to inform her family of her survival. Still ignorant of his identity, she gives the order to prepare an altar for the sacrifice of Orestes, and departs to write her message on tablets to give to Pylades. He worries that he may lose the tablets at sea and be unable to fulfill the oath he has sworn to deliver the message.
Then follows the famous recognition scene, praised by Aristotle for its dramatic motivation, in which Iphigeneia reveals that the message is for Orestes, her brother. The joy of the reunion is tempered by the details that Orestes then shares with his sister, concerning the circumstances of their parents deaths, with their mother killing their father, followed by her own murder, committed by Orestes at Apollo s command. The result is that he has been hounded by the Furies, who have not been satisfied by the outcome of the murder trial at Areopagus.
The continued pursuit of Orestes by the Furies functions as the second tear in the fabric of the Aeschylean plot, the first being Iphigeneia s survival. In the earlier trilogy, the outcome of the 12 Cf Aristotle Poetics Book In IT, Euripides seems to prefer the counterargument that the law is clearly not sufficient to placate all feelings of injustice. It is probably no coincidence that Euripides wrote this play, concerning the descendants of Pelops, at the height of the war between Athens and Sparta, involving the land mass that derives its name from Pelops: In any case, Orestes now informs Iphigeneia of Apollo s promise to free him from the Furies torment, if he travels to Tauris to secure the statue of Artemis and bring it back to the temple at Brauron.
The remainder of the play is concerned with fulfilling this mission. When we reach the discussion of Schiller s play, it will be appropriate to address in detail the connections between the Tauric Iphigeneia and the German Jungfrau, in addition to the enriching influence of Goethe s Iphigenie auf Tauris. For the moment, it may be helpful to observe that Euripides s play, just summarized, resembles Joan of Arc s history and Schiller s version of it, in several ways.
A virgin is entrusted with a mission by a virginal supernatural personality to put to death unwanted foreign visitors. Joan of Arc has this much in common with Iphigeneia. The virgin is diverted from this mission following a prophetic vision, after which a young man enters her life and presents her with another mission. The career of Schiller s Johanna faced with the Black Knight s warning before meeting Lionel follows a similar line.
While there is no reason to suppose that Joan of Arc would have had any knowledge of the Iphigeneia myth or if she had, would have seen any relevance of the story to her own life it 13 An example of aetiology, the use of some generally known fact as the impetus of a play or story s plot. In the former, references and allusions to birth rites in the choral parodoi are set beside actual preparations for rituals of death, and the dramatic action signals a shift from the public sphere to the private.
Euripides s Iphigeneia in Aulis IA When Euripides returned to the topic of Iphigeneia six or seven years later, he was apparently more interested in telling the story from within the homeland, in the time immediately preceding the expedition to Troy. The difficulty and importance of making a choice is shown to have national consequences, a notion that ties this story to Schiller s conception of his Jungfrau. One of the plot developments in progress at the start of the play is the assumption that Iphigeneia is coming to Aulis to marry Achilles, which suggests a family affair.
Her arrival with her mother, Clytemnestra, only reinforces the familial importance of the plan. All of this is a ruse. Agamemnon has summoned his daughter to Aulis at the urging of the priest, Calchis, who has consulted the oracle to determine why the gods have stilled the winds needed to permit them to sail for Troy. Agamemnon s famous sister-in-law, Helen, has been abducted to Troy, and the 14 Cf Wolff: Birth and marriage not fully achieved without the production of offspring as well as the close relations of parent and child are important in the play.
The chorus women elaborately celebrate Artemis Lochia in Delos, Leto's giving birth there, and the locheia kleina of Apollo ,. The dangers of pollution attendant on birth and approaching marriage are evoked , The priest has advised Agamemnon that the only solution is to sacrifice his daughter at the altar of Artemis in Aulis. Clytemnestra only discovers the truth when she attempts to discuss the marriage plans with an uninformed Achilles. Initially, Iphigeneia is horrified and cannot understand how her father can simultaneously love her and contemplate such an act.
Not for the first time, Agamemnon expresses ambivalence about the plan but begins to be concerned that the army may be on the verge of revolt. Achilles conspires with Clytemnestra to rescue his supposed bride from this inhuman act, but Iphigeneia in the meantime has reconsidered. She sees that resistance to her father will quickly lead to dissension in the army and perhaps even to general public violence. She believes that the Greeks need to be united against further barbarian incursions and is willing to let her death be the means of uniting them.
Agamemnon s ultimate decision to sacrifice his daughter and Iphigeneia s willing participation in the sacrifice are doubly rewarded: Her rescue takes place off stage, and a messenger arrives to inform Clytemnestra that, at the moment the priest sank his sword into the victim, Iphigeneia vanished, and a deer lay panting its last breaths in her place. My wife, where our daughter is concerned we can be blessed: Despite the fact that Euripides makes it clear in other works that he sees the Trojan War as a poor emblem of patriotic virtue, it seems that the ironic tragedian intended his audience to be impressed by the singularly heroic and selfless act of Iphigeneia s sacrifice for the sake of the 15 The final scene of this play is a matter of scholarly debate, with some observers arguing that it has been lost, and others arguing that it is hopelessly corrupted.
On the evidence of the earlier play, which depends on Iphigeneia s survival, it seems credible that, irrespective of the precise details, Euripides did not envision for his audience to believe that Iphigeneia was actually sacrificed at Aulis. The unique nature of her selflessness and her nearness to the gods themselves provide her with what may be termed a measure of sanctity. Although there is no tradition in Greek mythology, as in contemporary Christianity, of a communion of saints, it is not difficult to conclude that one of the many features that attracted Schiller, Goethe, Gluck and others to this story is its resemblance to the sorts of stories that we can find in lives of the saints, or hagiography.
Sanctity should not be confused with saintliness, a term which has been thoroughly co-opted as a religious idea, especially by orthodox Christendom of both the Western and Eastern varieties. Saintliness has come to signify a kind of piety and meekness, the complete submission of the individual will to that of a biblical godhead.
Sanctity, however, may also be understood as an individual s determination to stand apart in nearly every sense from ordinary human behavior, whether sexual, political, or moral, on the grounds that the saint conceives of doing so as essential to achieving a divine aim. In Schiller s Johanna, as in Euripides s Iphigeneia, sanctity is expressed by the will of an individual to complete her task without regard for reward or personal danger. Euripides establishes the holy status of his Taurian Iphigeneia early in the play.
In her first appearance with her ritual servants, played by the chorus, Iphigeneia reveals a dream that has disturbed her. The chorus enters in a solemn procession, calling on the goddess Artemis. In the course of this invocation, the servants identify both themselves and their priestess, Iphigeneia, with the following words: Indeed, Schiller seems to have this moment from Euripides in mind during an exchange between the Dauphin and the Archbishop in Johanna s company: Why is she absent At this lovely festive moment That she made possible?
Indeed, she converses with God, whenever She is not busy with the welfare of France; For blessing follows all her steps. Do you come attired like a priestess, Johanna, To consecrate the bond that you have forged? Iphigeneia and her servants walk in holy procession on maiden feet, while blessing follows all [Johanna s] steps.
Like Iphigeneia the holy temple warder, Johanna keeps her focus on the sanctity of her task, uninterested in the curious gaze of ordinary eyes. As a final point of comparison, Charles describes her as attired like a priestess. The political implication of Aeschylus s cycle, however, is that this new order exists for men only. Orestes, the male progeny, returns to kingship in Argos, yet Electra exits the stage and seems entirely forgotten. The women who are wronged in the Oresteia, chiefly Clytemnestra, but also Cassandra and the absent but significant Iphigeneia, are defeated, annihilated, or no longer merit mention.
Whether these sexist injustices motivated Euripides in his decision to create his first Iphigeneia play, Iphigeneia among the Taurians, and then to return six years later to the subject in Aulis we will probably never know, absent the kind of information that one can often glean from diaries and correspondence in the modern era. A compelling interpretation develops if one considers these two plays as the start and end of a cycle divided by some six or seven years.
This interpretation permits us to consider the cycle as a kind of Euripidean response to Aeschylus s Oresteia. The thematic lines are thus intriguing: The god driving the plot throughout the Oresteia is Apollo; the goddess driving the plot of the Iphigeneia cycle is Artemis. These two gods are brother and sister, as are Orestes and Iphigeneia, but the point of view in Euripides s plays is, significantly, that of Iphigeneia, under the influence of Artemis. The Euripidean response to Aeschylus, therefore, becomes something of a proto-feminist vision, one suitable as a basis for constructing a new legend on the history of Joan of Arc.
In his Jungfrau, Schiller accomplishes a similar proto-feminist reinterpretation of the literary history of Joan of Arc, by actively recasting her older Shakespearean and Voltairian depictions in a positive light. Where men are the driving forces in both Henry VI and La pucelle d Orleans, the woman-warrior Johanna, with her holy intuition and selfless determination, impels the plot of Schiller s play from start to finish. His new incarnation of Joan uses aspects of. He also uses several biblical exempla, which merit mention below, but these tend to appear sporadically, never seeming to develop into thematic devices operating throughout the scope of the play as the myth exempla do.
Many critics, including Shaw, have argued that the play is not entirely Shakespeare s, citing its clumsiness of plot and a dramatic style less effective than his other works. Those who credit it to Shakespeare take it for an early effort that does not represent the playwright at his best. Others are convinced that bits of the text show the influence of Christopher Marlowe and other Elizabethan playwrights. Schiller and his contemporaries seem not to have questioned its authenticity. Joan is not the central figure in the play, but appears in four of the five acts.
Of the three authors Euripides, Shakespeare, and Voltaire haunting the palimpsest of Schiller s play, Shakespeare is the one about whose Henry VI Schiller has the least to say. The general familiarity with Shakespeare of Schiller and all his circle in Weimar, not to mention the broader significance of the English playwright to German romanticism, has often been cited. In it, we find the work in progress named for the first time and an oblique reference to the sorcery to be found in Shakespeare s Joan:.
Auf das Hexenwesen werde ich mich nur wenig einlassen, und soweit ich es brauche, hoffe ich mit meiner eignen Phantasie auszureichen. Shakespeare hat im 1sten Theil von Heinrich VI. He is obviously aware of the marginalization of Joan in Shakespeare s play and clearly identifies one of its principal protagonists: Furthermore, he recognizes the possibility of chauvinism as the explanation for Shakespeare s promotion of the significance of Talbot over Joan.
In Schiller s letters and commentaries, we do not find any overt references to his familiarity with Shakespeare s play, but we can deduce from the presence of several plot elements and 16 Not yet die Jungfrau. The outline is almost ready; I hope to be able to get on with the execution within 14 days. The material is poetic to an exquisite degree, insofar as I have conceived it, and stirring to a high degree.
I am anxious about the execution, however, because while I think very highly of it, I fear that I will not be able to attain my own idea. In six weeks I must know how I stand with the matter. I plan to allow little of the old black magic stuff into it, and as far as I need it, I hope to enrich it with my own fantasy. It cannot fail to produce a rich and vital portrait. Shakespeare made very little of it in the first part of Henry VI, and as a true Englishman sought to cast a shadow over the French girl with Talbot. These chiefly involve five characters from the French side: As is typical of Shakespeare s history plays, the action shifts rapidly from the perspective of one side to the other.
On the French side, the inclusion of Charles is unavoidable, as arguably is Dunois, given their prominence historically in the events of the siege at Orleans. Both the English and the French regarded him as an honorable warrior Pernoud. Henry VI is as unavoidable as Charles, but his significance to the first part of Shakespeare s historical trilogy is much less than in the second and third parts. He appears in about as many scenes as Joan. When one considers that he was actually crowned only in December of , some two years after the action of the first play in the Shakespearean trilogy, and that he was only ten years old at the time, his minimal presence is more understandable, as is his absence from Schiller s drama, which ends shortly after the coronation of Charles VII at Rheims cathedral in July of Fastolfe will actually be discussed in Chapter 1, but if he had not appeared in Shakespeare, Schiller would likely have ignored him.
Come, come and lay him in his father s arms: My spirit can no longer bear these harms. I have what I would have, Now my old arms are young John Talbot s grave. Earlier in the play I. Regarding Talbot s capture in this decisive battle, there is an astonishing coincidence, which joins the historical Joan of Arc with the Iphigeneia plays. Pernoud informs us that the French are approaching Patay, uncertain of the position of the English troops, when by luck the scouts in front [see] a stag leap from the woods and take the road toward Patay.
It jump[s] into the English formation, whereupon it utter[s] a great cry. The French [did] not know that their enemies were so close to them Pernoud This discovery leads to an engagement, in the course of which, according to Burgundian chroniclers, three French soldiers die, as opposed to over two thousand English soldiers. It seems strange to consider that this great victory for Joan of Arc and the French side is precipitated by the sudden appearance of a stag, in the same sudden manner that Iphigeneia s place on the altar at Aulis is taken by the divine provision of a stag at the decisive moment.
Adding to the humiliation of this costly defeat is Talbot s capture in Patay. After Talbot finishes the story of his captivity, Salisbury invites him and two other English military leaders, Gargrave and Glansdale, to use their vantage point to observe the French fortifying their positions and decide how to improve their defenses. Mid-conversation, the playwright gives this stage direction: Salisbury and Gargrave fall. They in this instance must be taken in the sense of the enemy, that is, the French. In Schiller s play, Salisbury does not appear on stage, but in Act I, Johanna prophesies his death at Orleans, in a manner that strongly resembles his death scene in Shakespeare: She accuses him of lying, since only the living can send messages, and then relates the manner of Salisbury s death.
This prophecy concludes Johanna s first scene with Karl in Schiller, preceding which she has also picked him out of the crowd at court and revealed, to his amazement, the content of his private prayers. Both feats appear in the testimony of witnesses at Joan s condemnation and rehabilitation trials. Shakespeare retains the documented feat of Charles VII s recognition by Joan but does not include her subsequent description of his dreams, opting instead for a swordfight between the king and the young woman, in which Joan is the victor.
The invention of the so-called recognition scene can be credited to Shakespeare as a theatrical set piece, although it has a basis in history. When Joan gained entry to the dauphin s 20 This morning a shot from Orleans struck him down, as he looked down from the turret tower. The chronicler of the dauphin s court, Jean Chartier, informs us that Joan: Wherefore he replied to Joan: What if I am not the king, Joan?
Pointing to one of the lords, he said: There is the king. To which she answered, In God s name, gentle prince, it is you and none other. Pernoud Shakespeare adds a bit of dramatic tension to all this. Count Dunois, the so-called Bastard of Orleans, announces Joan s arrival and extols the aid that she promises to bring.
Before she enters, Charles orders Reignier, the duke of Anjou, to stand in his place: Question her proudly; let thy looks be stern: By this means shall we sound what skill she hath. Fair maid, is t thou wilt do these wondrous feats? Reignier, is t thou that thinkest to beguile me? Where is the Dauphin? Come, come from behind; I know thee well, though never seen before. He makes only brief appearances with scarcely any lines in Act III, during the action in and around Rouen.
In each of these appearances, he seems something of a cypher, offering vacuous patriotic and encouraging. This is in sharp contrast to his historical role as a critical leader at Joan s side in all of the actual military skirmishes that turn the tide against the English in and The consistent note between his depiction in Shakespeare and his historical role, perhaps, is that he remains a stalwart supporter of the real Joan, and his eloquent testimony proves instrumental in her rehabilitation trial years later.
This scene signals a change in the characterization of Joan from an instrument of God into something quite different. Speak, Pucelle, and enchant him with thy words. Either she hath bewitch d me with her words, Or nature makes me suddenly relent. In this penultimate scene of the play, an unnamed Shepherd appears, claiming to be Joan s father, who has been seeking her and is now ready to die with her.
She denies anything of the sort, avowing that she is of noble birth: I am descended of a gentler blood: Thou art no father nor no friend of mine. Dost thou deny they father, cursed drab? Oh burn her, burn her, hanging is too good.
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He seems to have enjoyed an honorable position in this countryside, whether he was rich, as some have implied, or not. In a document of he is described as doyen or sergeant of the village; he therefore took rank between the mayor and the provost [ ] We know that he opposed with all his power the mission of his daughter, whom he wished to marry off, without a doubt. He was ennobled in December Jacques d Arc died, it is said, of sorrowing over his daughter s end. Champion While Champion may indulge in some speculation or hyperbole in recounting the cause of Jacques d Arc s death, the state of affairs he decribes stands in diametrical opposition to the reciprocal denunciation provided by Shakespeare.
His invention, however, seems to have struck Schiller as the perfect climax to his play. The depiction of Johanna herself depends to a significant extent on the factors that cause her denunciation to make sense in Schiller s play: Shakespeare s Joan, since she is not the central character, cannot be considered a tragic protagonist. Her role is actually much more a stereotype, according to Paxson, surviving from medieval miracle and mystery plays and born of a cultural prejudice leading to the condemnation of Joan of Arc herself: Shakespeare s Joan is duplicitous and seems to contradict herself in ways which make her character not only unsympathetic but also unbelievable.
Immediately after she enchants the duke of Burgundy into switching from the English to the French side, she remarks: Just before her capture by the English, she enters into hand-to-hand combat with the Duke of York, who teases her by attributing her military skill to witchcraft: A goodly prize, fit for the devil s grace! Aristotle Poetics Books 11 and 14 Whalley 87, Changed to a worser shape thou canst not be. O, Charles the Dauphin is a proper man; No shape but his can please your dainty eye.
A plaguing mischief light on Charles and thee! And may ye both be suddenly surprised By bloody hands, in sleeping on your beds! Fell banning hag, enchantress, hold thy tongue! I prithee, give me leave to curse awhile. Curse, miscreant, when thou comest to the stake. These insulting and to borrow Shaw s word scurrilous scenes pale in comparison, however, with her final scenes, preceding and following her denunciation by her shepherd-father.
Just before her combat with York, Shakespeare prepares the audience for her condemnation with a soliloquy during which Joan converses with silent demons, whom Shakespeare presents as fiends. She enters the stage alone and conjures up these evil spirits with stock words and devices: It seems clear that this scene is designed to serve as a Eureka moment: She really is a witch in league with the devil!
The execution of the scene is, however, rather clumsy and possibly self-contradictory. After the fiends appear, she repeats her request for help, but the stage directions have them walk and speak not ; they hang their heads, and they shake their heads. Joan makes a final plea: Then take my body, soul and all. Before that England give the French the foil. My ancient incantations are too weak, And hell too strong for me to buckle with: Now, France, thy glory droopeth to the dust.
If the war now turns in favor of the English, can the audience now maintain. Perhaps we are to conclude that evil forces abandon those they are helping when they begin to lose and prefer to remain on the sidelines. Although such superstitions were commonplace at the time, the quandary posed by the vacillating fiends probably supports the theory that the play is the work of hands other than Shakespeare s. As previously mentioned, after Joan fights York, is captured by the English and then makes her last appearance in the play, there follows the scene with her shepherd-father already discussed V.
As it progresses, York commands that she be taken away for she hath lived too long 34 , and she realizes that she will be executed. She makes several attempts to ask York and Warwick, who is also present, to spare her life. Seeming to forget that she is the enemy of the men to whom she is making her appeal, she first repeats her claim to be of royal birth, and that she is virtuous and holy, chaste and immaculate 39, When these fail, she claims to be pregnant.
Assuming the child to be the Dauphin s, they assert that it is even more important that neither the potential heir nor its mother survive, and repeat their order for her execution. Finally, she proclaims that the father is Reignier, the king of Naples, but York and Warwick laugh off these protestations, mocking her duplicity and cowardice. Joan curses them and their country, expressing the hope that one day their despair drives them to suicide.
York sends her off to be executed: Break thou in pieces and consume to ashes, thou foul accursed minister of hell! With this, Joan s participation in 22 Claims of Joan s royal lineage, usually that she was a bastard child, are part of her legend. In one version of the story, she is the illegitimate daughter of the dauphin s mother, Queen Isabeau of Bavaria Pernoud Her intimacy with the dauphin, Charles, usually an aspersion, becomes a plot device in the libretto of Verdi s opera on the subject, which is discussed in Chapter 2.
The combination of the two unsupported claims is tantamount to an accusation of incest, one of the few crimes Shakespeare does not heap upon her head overtly, although perhaps it could be inferred in this ignominious scene.
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Despite the absence of any reference by Schiller to Henry VI in his papers, the large number of characters and events exhibiting parallels to Shakespeare s play seems to offer compelling evidence of his close familiarity with it. Of greater significance is the presence of depictions, both with and without historical basis, that serve to diminish Shakespeare s rough treatment of Joan, who is to be replaced with Schiller s more idealized Johanna. Ein edler Sinn liebt edlere Gestalten. This presented a three-pronged challenge: Voltaire s mock epic was extremely well known; it was admired by some for the sharpness of its language; and it represented Jeanne 24 as an utterly ordinary stable girl whose singular virtue was her constantly threatened virginity.
Schiller was aware of what he was up against, as he revealed in a letter to Wieland, written after the play s premiere on 17 October He was, on this occasion, comparing his depiction of Johanna with that of Wieland s Lais in Sokrates mainomenos Lais is generally regarded as a notorious courtesan of the time of Socrates. Wieland s work imagines Diogenes as a Socrates gone mad Sokrates mainomenos, an epithet attributed to Plato to whom the courtesan offers her services at no charge.
Hat er seine Pucelle zu tief in den Schmutz herabgezogen, so habe ich die meinige vielleicht zu hoch gestellt. Some of them were so enthusiastic that they made copies, which began to be circulated more and more widely, in a kind of pre-revolutionary, French version of the Soviet-era tradition of samizdat. The poem became so popular, however, that unauthorized printed versions began to appear all over Europe, with no profits accruing to the author, a fact that led Voltaire finally to publish an edited version in A great deal might be said about this brilliant and controversial work, although Schiller and many of his contemporaries saw it as merely salacious.
Given contemporary tastes and attitudes toward sex, it is likely that it would be received much more favorably today than was the case in the nineteenth or twentieth centuries. The discussion here will be limited to connections between Voltaire s poem and Schiller s Jungfrau. Nora Heimann has examined Voltaire s and Schiller s versions of Joan s story. Her book follows the legacy of their conceptions, much as this dissertation does, but it does so through the 26 Both moreover have this in common, that they seek to restore two terribly ignominious and admirable ladies to a proper reputation, and you will agree, that Voltaire has done his utmost to make the game difficult for any dramatic successor.
If he has dragged his Pucelle too deeply in the mire, I have perhaps elevated mine too drastically. But there was no other way, if one wanted to remove the mark with which he had branded his Beauty. Her commentary reveals a deep familiarity with Voltaire s entire work and some of its many spurious versions, but even a scholar as intimate with the nuances of the distinction between what people think Voltaire has to say about Jeanne and what he actually writes about her lets prejudice get the best of her. With her head tilted in a come-hither glance, her breasts pushed forward, and her left hand holding the pommel of a down-turned sword like a jaunty cane, Gaucher s Joan is patently sexy A look at the painting confirms the accuracy of the description, but when Heimann says that this is the look of Voltaire s alluring protagonist, it seems that she is making the same mistake that Schiller and many others seem to have made.
They confuse the compromising and salacious settings into which Voltaire places Jeanne with the much more innocent personality which he supplies to her. Where Chapelain is perhaps creative in his accounts of Jeanne s biography, Voltaire is utterly inventive: Jeanne is the illegitimate daughter of a priest; a stable girl; she rides a flying donkey.
Voltaire clearly does not intend his readers to confuse his pucelle with the actual historical figure, but that is what they did. This kind of confusion, a risk generally in satire, can be found in a more recent treatment of Christ. When the comedy troupe, Monty Python, produced a religious satire in called The Life of Brian, they provoked controversy because some saw the film as making light of Christian teachings, rather than making light of excessive religious dogma. The film s hero, Brian, was clearly not presented as an actual messiah; and the satire was directed against extreme.
Similarly, the erotic situations in which Voltaire places his Jeanne should not be construed as attempts to suggest that Joan herself was immoral or corrupt. Her first encounter with the Dauphin leads immediately to an examination to confirm her virginity. Voltaire gleefully informs us that the examination actually occurred, and Pernoud confirms that it took place in Poitiers on or about 11 March It was to be repeated during her trial two years later, with the same result. Admittedly, Voltaire s Jeanne ends up naked on several occasions and is almost raped several times, but each time her virginity is maintained.
A notable exception occurs at the end, when she finally surrenders to her stalwart companion, Dunois, eliciting, even at the moment it is no longer true, the proud boast of Brother Lourdis: She s a maid! The fact that the French public was eager to attach such importance to her virginity is precisely the issue in Voltaire s satire. The death of Joan of Arc would yield yet greater insight if a man of genius would dare to confront the ridicule which we have showered on this respectable and unfortunate girl, to whom Greece would have raised altars Pernoud Bernardin s reference to Greek altars calls to mind the mission of Iphigeneia and Orestes to return the statue of Artemis to Brauron, another example of the almost inevitable link between the myth of Iphigeneia and Joan s French history.
One man of genius who appears to have accepted Bernardin s challenge is Schiller, and it is worth pondering how much Greek technique may be found in the altar he raises to his Johanna. In the same year Schiller produces the play, he publishes a poem that he hopes will explain his plan to treat the subject that had earned Voltaire such notoriety. Its first stanza makes clear Schiller s view of Voltaire s treatment of Joan: To mock the noble image of humanity Scorn dragged you through the mud, Wit always wages war with beauty, It believes in no angel or god, It will rob the heart of its treasures, It clashes with delusion, wounding faith.
Scorn and wit in this context may be allegorical labels for Voltaire, an interpretation given further impetus by the masculine gender of the German word, Witz, requiring the use of the pronoun er he. The it in English can be read as he in the German lines: Although Schiller decides to remove Voltaire from the title of his poem, his criticism of the French poet s treatment of Joan is implied.
Notwithstanding the possibility that Schiller s perception of Voltaire s Pucelle suffers from excessive conventionality, his negative perception was entirely in accord with the public s opinion, which conflated Voltaire s poem about Joan with Joan herself. The need to overcome the prejudice against the reputation of Voltaire s maid was not merely an artistic problem but also a practical one, which blocked the premiere of the play in Weimar. Some commentators have suggested that this was because certain persons involved in the theater life of the city were not convinced of the play s quality.
The eventual success of the play belies this suggestion. Passage informs us that in light of Voltaire s notorious poem, concerns about the appropriateness of Joan of Arc as the subject of a play at first concerned Schiller s patron in Weimar, Duke Karl August. After reading the play, he realized that Schiller had exalted Joan s chastity and heroic. No actress in the Weimar troupe was thinkable in the role save Karoline Jagemann, and Karoline Jagemann was his own mistress Passage To have the duke s mistress playing a role that most of the potential theater-goers of Weimar associated with Voltaire s much-maligned Pucelle appears to have seemed scandalous.
As a result, the premiere of the play was relocated to Leipzig and took place on 11 September , with subsequent performances in Hamburg and Berlin. When it had finally gained a sufficient degree of acclaim and respectability, it played on the Weimar stage on 23 April Sent from Weimar, on 17 April , a Thursday. He begins the letter with a remark on his poor health: The first, to judge from the letters that follow this one, appears to be material related to Maria Stuart. He had begun research for this play the year before, but progress on it had been hampered by his chronically poor health and lack of confidence in his ability to do it justice.
The second item, to judge from how he describes it, seems to be Die Jungfrau, about which he writes to request Unger s view of the suitability of the material for a calendar to be published the next year: Here again he is referring to the coincident work on Maria Stuart, as well as to his recent translation of Shakespeare s Macbeth. Von Macbeth [Schiller s translation of Skakespeare s play] sind mehrere Proben gewesen, und ich hoffe alles Gute davon. Thus, while he is overseeing rehearsals for the premiere of his translation of Macbeth, he is nearly finished with Maria Stuart, which itself is scheduled to begin rehearsals only slightly more than two weeks later.
On 23 May, Schiller expresses regret that Goethe has missed a read-through the previous day of the completed play, which was to see its premiere on 14 June All of this activity, it is worth noting, comes from a man professing to have been shown little favor by the Muses. By the middle of , Schiller was already famous as a playwright and poet and the acknowledged confidant and closest friend of the far more famous Goethe. During their years together in Weimar, he and Goethe had brought German Classicism into existence, against the prevailing winds of Romanticism that were blowing throughout most of the rest of Germany and Europe.
Given that his stature in German literature is exceeded only by Goethe, it is easy to forget that his path to fame was circuitous at best, and full of hardships, sickness, and disappointments. Many biographers have examined the details of his life and work: There have been several rehearsal for Macbeth, and I have high hopes for it. And so the first performance will take place on Wednesday only eight days from now.
Publication information can be found in the Bibliography. He would not experience a similar success until the premiere of Jungfrau twenty years later. The Duke threatened to have Schiller arrested if he published any non-medical literature. The father of one of Schiller s classmates at the Duke s Hohe Karlschule, Christian Daniel Schubart, had written some verses satirizing the Duke and his mistress, and by that time had already been imprisoned without trial for four years at the fortress of Hohenasperg.
Schiller had gotten his inspiration for the play from a story by Schubart, whom the Duke would not release for another six years. Schiller very much wanted to abandon the military career the Duke had thrust upon him and pursue his literary ambitions, but he knew he could not accomplish this in his native Stuttgart. It seems that the vividness of Schiller s depiction in Jungfrau of the struggle against authority perceived as unjust and the pain of being an outcast are similarly based on his personal experiences. He completed the first act in autumn of that year.
He began work on Die Geschichte des Abfalls der vereinigten Niederlande von der Spanischen Regierung, the content of which had grown out of his research for Don Carlos. He met Wieland and Herder during this time and gave each a copy of the published version of Don Carlos. The Weimar court of Duke Karl August was not entirely receptive to Schiller initially, partially via the influence on the duke s mother, the dowager Duchess Anna Amalia, of the playwright, Friedrich Gotter, and the actor-playwright, August Iffland, who were Schiller s rivals from his Mannheim days.
Accordingly, Wieland, who had been hired years earlier as tutor to Karl August by Anna Amalia, was initially reluctant to comment on the play, but eventually he and Schiller became friends. Where Winkelmann had introduced the generation of Lessing and the youthful Goethe to ancient Greek art, in like 33 Despite the resemblance of her married surname to that of the foppish Kalb from Kabale und Liebe, her husband, whom Schiller admired, could not have been the inspiration for that character, as Schiller had written the play before he met the Kalbs.
The effect of his knowledge of the ancient world on Schiller was profound. Guided by Wieland, he came upon a new and hitherto unsuspected world; but it was a world which for all its attractions, was gone past recall Garland Mit Vinnie Jones, Scot Williams u. Film-Stadttour durch die Isarmetropole. Nur eine Stunde Ruhe! Schon bald zettelt der gute Mann einen Gangsterkrieg an, in den auch ein serbischer Clan-Boss wunderbar: Bruno Ganz involviert ist.
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Die hatten gehaltener Waffe. Doch die Violine von Sophia Pfister taktet ihn in seine neue Existenz: Denn der Papiertiger streift rudelbildend durch dieses Drama. Den Erkenntniswert steigert das aber nicht, schlimmer noch: Es ist der Wonnemonat Mai. Stilprinzip ist, die Dinge konsequent unkonventionell auf den Kopf zu stellen.
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Mit Solisten und Ensemble des Bayerischen Staatsballetts. Mit dem Bayerischen Staatsballett. Mit Giordano, Petrozzi, Kares, Radvanovsky u. Mit Pape, Polenzani, Nazmi u. UniCredit Festpiel-Nacht am 4. Mit Shenja Lacher, Sibylle Canonica u. Mit Sibylle Canonica, Valery Tscheplanowa u. Drama vom sensiblen Renaissancedichter Wer hat Angst vor Virginia Woolf? Mit Bibiana Beglau, Norman Hacker u. Mit Carolin Conrad, Arthur Klemt u. Der heiteranarchische Briefroman in einem Sanatorium, in dem alle Patienten mit dem Geldkomplex geschlagen sind.
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Das Publikum bekommt ein drama- T. Zwischen Tradition und Moderne: Les Fleurs du Mal? Hofmann mit der Musik von Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Songs der er- und 40er-JahElvirastr.
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Iris Krause, Marc Haas. Ein schrulliger Witwer, mehrere Papageien, vier KL. Johanna zu bringen ab 14 Jahren. Ein Leben auf der Schattenseite: Julius ist an einem Montag geboren und eckt KL: Bis er seinen ersten Freund findet. Dort feiert er seinen Das denkst du zumindest. Wir zeigen dir, dass du falsch gedacht hast. Kunst und Leben ist dasselbe. Essen muss der Mensch. Mit Studierenden der twm.
Das Theater wird komplett auf den Kopf gestellt und das Publikum bleibt nie wo es ist. Mit Cecile Bagieu, Arno Friedruch u. Brilliant comedy magician and unique style of magic. Original English Version — no subtitles. Konstantin jeden und tritt in die eigene Falle. Witz, Bosheit, Gegin Bally Prell. Mit Johanna Baumann in der walt, Poesie: Juni bis Di Juli Theaterferien te Zauberfestival Deutschlands feiert sein Mit Uwe Kosubek, Johannes Di 2.
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Jede Szene wird so zur Premiere schriebener und verzappelter Kunst — die un— unwiederholbar und unvergesslich! Unbezahlbar, der Eintritt ist somit frei! Liedern an der Gitarre. Eine einzigartige Umsetzung des Klassikers. Gasteig Philharmonie Di 9. Michael Mittermeier ausverkauft Highlights aus vergangenen Jahren und neue Nummern zu aktuellen Themen — schonungslos, indiskret, mitleidlos!
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Die von den schiede zu entdecken. Als drittes Triptychon gut. Ein Wort, viele Vorstellun- zenden Ausstellungen: Das Land der Griechen mit Theater. Sehnsuchtsmotiv zum Thema hat. GeZeit von bis Aquarelle im Olaf Gulbransson Museum Tegernsee bis Poetry Slam am Di 2. Aquarellen sowie diversen Objekten, die die. Geschichte n eines Flusses — I: Sammlung Bollert Do-So Finissage am Mo Geschichte n eines Flusses — II: Sonderkreationen, kostbaren Kleinexponaten, vielen Informationen und Hintergrundgeschichten bis Eine Stadt, viele Geschichten Seit 1.
Es gibt keine Sitzgelegenheiten! Dennoch geht es bei diesen Unsagbare zeigen. Und da die wenigsten Besucher Historiker, aber alle Menschen sind — ausgestattet mit Jahre warten. Diese Verunsicherung ist halt aber auch nicht so einfach Einzuordnen- immer dabei. Dies ist sches Museum, sondern hat noch immer die Hauptstadt der Bewegung. Ich werde sehr viel mit uns und unserer Gegenwart www. Damit wird man quasi in die Welt entlassen, mit der Gewissheit: Es ist nicht vorbei und es wird auch nie vorbei sein.
Und deshalb ist es gut, dass es nun doch noch geklappt hat mit dem Lern- und Erinnerungszentrum, das am Peinlich sagen die einen. Auf tausend Quadratmetern und vier Stockwer-. Diesen zwei Fragen stellt sich das NSDokumentationszentrum und will dabei mehr sein als ein begehbares Geschichtsbuch. Subjektiv historisches Kopfkino quasi. Erlebnisausstellung ab 4 J. Kollage erstellen ab 6 Jahren. Wasserbilder Dachauer mit Monika Haupt ab 6 Jahren. Eingangs- im Alten Hof begrenzte Teilnehmerzahl. Rotunde Pinakothek der Moderne Ein Vortrag von Internationale Museumstag findet am Sonntag Unter dem Motto Museum.
Fotografien von Christine Scherman, Burma bis auf weiteres. Bettina Gundler, Leiterin Hauptabteilung Landverkehr.
Im ausstellung der Stiftung Warum den Do Stock, bis auf weiteres. Vernissage am So Jahrhunderts, zur Auf der Pirsch. Saal 20, bis 1. Wilhelm Knittel am Mi tation der erworbenen und als Dauerleihgabe Der Blaue Reiter und Freier Eintritt bis Einblicke in die Lithowerkstatt. Das Familienunternehmen Mattiazzi auf dem Weg der Neudefinition.
Unter der Treppe Under The Staircase. Parallel zur Cepka-Ausstellung bis 7. Sonntag im Monat um Wer wer will hierher, will weg? Lady Harvey und der Schwanzbiber: Die hier gezeigte ten: Vernissage am Do Was passiert eigentlich auf dem Dach des Gasteig? Michael Ende Museum Mi-So Special Event am Fr Schoen, Ludwig Wilding, Susan York bis Der Kunstfotograf nimmt Unikate bis Bezug auf die Kultur der literarischen Reiseberichte und ihre Parodien verl.
Vernissage am Mi Frau von heute gestellt werden bis Im Zentrum der Mensch,. Vernissage am Fr Vernissage am Di Ehemalige Hofkunsthandlung Brienner Str. Dabei kommen die verschiedensten Materialien zum Einsatz. Atelier ab 6 Jahren. Geschichte n eines Flusses — Fr Das Triptychon des So Begrenzte Teilnehmerzahl So Begrenzte Teilnahme Fr Melanie Kaliwoda oder Dr. Eingang Hofgarten neben Eingang Herkulessaal. Museumstag , So Brandlhuber, Leiterin der Sammlungen.
Nicht mal notorische Schnarch-Hilfen wie Goethes Faust. Und gelegentlich besonders hat. Nur die Fische gehen etwas unter, schwimmen nicht ganz so munter mit dem Strom. Da angelt wohl jemand in der Gegenwart. Very fishy, diese Jugend. Gekonnt verflochten wie ein Challa-Zopf sind diese ausschweifenden, oft bis ins Detail stimmigen und munter durch die Zeiten springenden Geschichten, die u.
Ein Special-Force-Offizier verehrt, zum. Der Sammelband war in den U. Dort hat Barrett, verkrachter Start-up-Unternehmer und Literaturkenner, Asyl bei seinem Bruder Tyler, einem genialen, aber bislang erfolglosen Musiker, und seiner schwer krebskranken Frau Beth gefunden. Bush — mit Melancholie und vielen heimlichen Nasen Koks lindert.
PC und TV bleiben offline, Hausverbot ist angesagt! Den Standardbeauties, den Postkartenmotiven, den Topmodels des Tourismus: Die ewig reizvolle Wasser-Berge-Kombi, idealerweise unter stahlblauem Himmel und in Sonne getaucht ist nun mal die Interpretation des Fremdenverkehrs. Die magische Allianz, der jeder erliegt:. Vergleichbar mit dem Schweizer Tessin rund um Lugano. So muss sie sein eine richtige Schifffahrt. Und wow — endlich vom Gipfel der eindrucksvollen Architekturspirale aus: Wir wandern weiter zur Buschenschenke Lach bei Trattnigteich.
Jahren offeriert der Spezialist ein riesen Angebot an Radreisen u. Das musikalische Leitmotiv aus in Europa. Assoziieren sie seit Jahren , heute als Romantikhodoch unmenschlichen Muskeleinsatz und tel. Seit 20 Ein echter Geheimtipp ist die Gaisalm. Royale Mondscheinserenade —Chiemsee Noch so ein Lackerl, das die Eiszeiten — diesmal im Voralpenland —haben liegen lassen. Und genau so schaut er auch aus der Chiemsee beim Blick von der Kampenwand 1. Die erhabene Draufsicht von weit oben entlockt ihnen immer ihr wahres Wesen.
Herren- und Fraueninsel recht markant mittendrin. Und auch hier die Faszination des Wassers. Vier Termine ab 3. Vier Termine ab Rich- normalen Radlfahrer Neudeutsch: Gleich ein paar ranghohe Gartenevents stehen an, von denen sich zwei wunderbar im Doppelpack abgrasen lassen.
Und ganz ganz viel mehr. Italienische Nacht ab Als Heilpflanze durfte sie auch in den sittenstrengen Klosteranlagen wurzeln. Bekannt vor allem als herrliches Wanderrevier. Mai empfehlen wir dort den Gasthof Jachenau.
Compositions by: Schein, Johann Hermann
Wer rechtzeitig reserviert, kann hier auf 1. Der Familienstatus ist dabei dann eher nicht mehr von Belang. Das Gasthaus ist am In Kambodscha floriert der Menschenhandel. Skilifte mit Sitzheizung, ein Golfplatz, ein Villenviertel Die Wandlung des Schweizer Alpendorfes in ein Luxusressort. Sie laufen durch stroboskopisch beleuchtete, enge Tunnel Fury Road siehe Sonntag Mit Hannah Herzsprung, Karoline Herfurth, u. Mit Alex Caldiero, Richard Dutcher u.
Der wilde Trip einer jungen Frau durch Kambodscha. Mit Amanda Nicole Thomas u. Ein Horror-Survival-Trip der trashigsten Sorte. Internationale Dokumentarfilmfestival bis Ein ironischer Kompilationsfilm mit Filmsequenzen. Sie kommen nachts und keiner sieht sie. Das Thema Depression ist mehr denn je in den Schlagzeilen.
Drei Geschwister am te. Bis sie Opfer einer neoliberalen Wirtschaftspolitik wurde. Das Massaker an den Geschichte von Florian Burkhardt ist die eines unglaublichen Selfmademan: Was ihm in all den Jahren nicht gelingt, ist zu sich selbst finden. Hier wird die GeMcLoughlan. Merrylu Casselly und Patrick Die ehemalige Prostituierte ter Zirkusfamilien sind sie die Hoffnung auf Brenda hilft jungen Frauen in Chicago in eine eine goldene Zukunft Die Polin Jowita soll sich als Altendeweerd.
Denisa ist Desert Haze engl. Griechenland steht vor dem Drone engl. N Staatsbankrott und muss das einschneidenste Vier Drohnen- und Roboterkriege, die bereits un- Jahre lang verfolgt der Film die Ereignisse der ser Alltag geworden sind. Schuldenkrise aus griechischer Perspektive. Die Liebe in den Zeiten der Selbstentfaltung. Mit dabei sind dann: DJs Pascha, Karsten Kiessling u. Gluck, Wagner, Bizet und Sarasate. Tscheplanowa, Sebastian Blomberg, Bibiana Beglau u. Mit Meisi von der Sonnau, Panos Papageorgiou.
Moses-Geschichte neu auf, nach der Vorlage Mit Jean Gabin, Robert Stack u. Ein ehrenwerter Ex-Gangster versucht es noch einmal mit einem Bankraub. Mit Casper van Dien u. Mit Kari Matchett u. Mit Mit Lee Jeong-jin u. Mit Paul Hogan, Linda Kozlowski u. Mit Ben Stiller, Owen Wilson u.
Mit George Clooney, Jennifer Lopez u. Mit Terence Hill, Bud Spencer u. Die Schlitzohren kloppen sich in Brasilien. Mit Bud Spencer u. Mit Bud Spencer, Marina Langner u. Mit Frederick Stafford, Karin Dor u. Cruise, Catherine Zeta-Jones u. Rockstar — ehrlich, sexy, wild! Mit John Travolta u. Mit Maria Simon, Franz Xaver Mit Steve Evets, Eric Cantona u. Die Kirchen der Residenz: ORF 2 Zeit im Bild; Mit Max von Thun, Jacques Perrin u. Eine abenteuerliche Suche nach der heiligen Lanze, die Macht und Unstreblichkeit verleiht.
Mit Rex Harrison u. Mit Eddie Murphy, Kristen Wilson u. Mit Tom Hanks u. In der actionreichen Verfilmung nach den Marvel-. Ein Autorenfilm ohne Drehbuch: Bei den Winterspielen in Sotchi nahm erstmals ein Athlet aus Tonga teil. Ein Sportlerdrama, ein gewitzter Marketing-Schachzug. Tim Zom alias Zombi ist auf dem besten Weg Skateprofi zu werden.
Sie sind eine Gang. Corinne ist kein normaler Teenager. ARRI macht weiter siehe Donnerstag Intiche Moore bis Johnny Winter u. Ein Mann erHerrmann und Tanzkurs in der 1. MUC-King — 2. Arbeitnehmer sehen sich DOK. Mana OmeU siehe Donnerstag Ein ganz norma- tod als Held stilisiert wird? Sie lebt Sound, Lounge u. Spe- days by DJ Pat Rick. Was tun, wenn Alternative, Punk mit diversen DJs. Austro-Pop ta, Ledl uvm. Mit Louise Mieritz u. Mit Andrea Wenzl, MichaSt. We Love Arabs siehe Samstag Adenauerallee ler und Infos zu Naturmedizin-Produkten, Al- Claus Siegert Medizin, Schamanen-Ritualen.
Episches Abenteuerdrama mit einem britischen Reporter, der mit einer Gruppe chinesischer Waisenkinder vor den Japanern flieht. Soul, Funk, Disco M Mit Heiner Lauterbach, Friedrich von Thun u. Eine niederschmetternde Diagnos schickt zwei alte Freunde auf eine ltzte Reise an die Orte ihrer Vergangenheit. Mit Martin Sheen, Helen Shaver u. Roll mit den White Collar Boys. Jazz World League pres. Igor Levit Hits der letzten Jahre.
Mit Antonia Thomas, Steve Coogan u. Doch das bombastische Vorhaben steht im Gegensatz zu Mensch und Natur. Herbert ist der ersehnte neue Lebenspartner der Regisseurin. Die Protagonistin bietet den Verantwortlichen die Stirn. Mit Emil Jannings u. Ali Mitgutsch zum Raimund Hoghe — Eine Reflexion. Ein angesehener Staatsanwalt sieht sich mit illegalem Organhandel konfrontiert.
Mit Heike Makatsch, Dominic Raacke u. Mit Peter Mullan u. Mit Paul Brannigan, Siobhan Reilly u. Mit Brad Pitt, Cate Blanchett. Die Fortsetzung des Piraten-Spektakels. Mit Dominic West u. Fantasy-Unfug mit Zombie-Virus im Anflug Soak, Britta Thie u. Mit Nicolas Cage, Guy Pearce. Mit Milla Jovovich u. Mit der erlittenen Prosopagnosie ist sie fortan ein leichtes Opfer Ein Komet nimmt Kurs auf die Erde.
Unsere Aneignung der Welt basiert zunehmend auf Bilderwelten, die wiederum ihre ganz eigenen, neuen Welten kreieren. Ein Besuch bei Menschen, die mit bildgebenden Techniken arbeiten. Zudem hat er schon mal einen Gra- Werken von Mozart und Bach und abwechmy gewonnen Mit dabei als Conando Sor. Hans Lengefeld b u. Die Moderatoren El Chorazon siehe Samstag Special Musikwissenschaftlerin Maria Goeth und die Guest: Werke von Purcell, Schubert, Wagner u.
Wer nicht spurt, kommt in den Fleischwolf. Mit James Franco, Char- Best. Mit Meier, Theorin, Merbeth u. Hornauer, Andivalent, Helmut A. Gesunde Bildung In der Gesundheitsbranche ist Musik drin. Der Fernstudiengang wendet sich an leitende Mitarbeiter im Gesundheitswesen. Intensivkurse A 1 - C 2. Malkovich, Richard Dreyfuss u. Versche Volkslieder und Jodler zum Mitsingen. Ohne Noten; keine Vorkenntnisse notwendig.
Mit Martina Gedeck, Markus Krojer u. Lach-Yoga-Treff siehe Sonntag Mit Klaus Maria Brandauer u. Richard Wagner und Ludwig II. Mit Ryan Merriman u. Die dritte Fortsetzung des schwarzhumorigen Horrorthrillers von den Highschool-Teenagern und dem garstigen Sensenmann. Mehr als nur ein Trainer Zimmr frei! Altstadt — Schwabing — Mit Bruce Wil Sie landen in einer Gameshow und auf einem Kreuzfahrtschiff. Mit Josef Hader, Tobias Moretti u. Mit Crispin Clover, Howard Hesseman u.
Preis Viola , Bruno Philippe Frankreich, 3. Preis Klavier spielen Werke von W. Andrea Hermenau p , Peter Cudek b u. Ekzem Homo siehe Sonntag Christian Wack und Dr. Unter der Orgelempore; Ludwigstr. Im Rahmen der Montag im Monat, nicht in den Schulferien. Ein zwischen herzlich-leidenschaftlich und melancholisch-geheimnisvoll pendelnder Liederabend zwischen Jazz und Folklore.
Doku von Henry Mix u. Mit Dirk Bogarde, Silvana Mangano. Und obwohl so gut wie nicht gesprochen wird entwickelt sich zwischen den dreien eine Beziehung, ja sogar eine gewisse Vertrautheit. Mit Ice Cube, Samuel L. Jackson, Wiliam Dafoe, Peter Strauss u. Mit Vin Diesel, Larenz Tate u. Mit Liam Neeson, Maggie Grace u. Mozart, Peteris Vasks und Antonin Dvorak.
Bach, Zelenka und C. Mit dem U2 bis Doobie Brothers. Ensemble des Bayerischen Staatsballetts. Boerne in ihrem ersten Fall. Volker Mall Deisenhofener Str. Pierre Jarawan und Ko Bylanzky. Mit Kevin Spacey, Robin Williams u. Mit Bettina Zimmermann, Eugen Bauder u. Mit Jeff Bridges, Glenn Close u. Di Diamantweg-Buddhismus siehe Di Lebenswege und Erlebnisse deutscher Sinti heute: Doku von Oliver Goetzl. Das perfekte Dinner; Michael Patrick Kelly Songs, die die Welt bewegten: Gedreht vier Tage nach Kriegsende. Mit Michael Keaton u. Mit Walter Quiroz, Dominique Sanda u.
Dazu wie immer lecker Fischgerichte von Guido Berg und seiner Mannschaft. Mit Emilie Dequenne u. Mit Andrey Smirnov u. Mit Zrinka Cvitesic u. Mit Tommy Lee Jones, Party. ComputerHilfe siehe Mittwoch Mi im Monat Die Schule ist aus — und was tust du?! Nicht in den Ferien. Mozart, Vi- van der Maas. Preis Viola , Bruno Phineuen Staates. Preis Violoncello , Florian Preis Klavier spielen Druschba siehe Mittwoch Blutige Vorgeschichte des Horrorklassikers: Der Pfarrer begegnet erstmals dem Teufel in Person.